Foams With Wettability-Altering Capabilities for Oil-Wet Carbonates: A Synergistic Approach
- Robin Singh (University of Texas at Austin) | Kishore K. Mohanty (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,126 - 1,139
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- mobility reduction, Surfactant, foam, carbonate rocks, wettability alteration
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 675 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The goal of this work is to systematically study the effect of wettability alteration and foaming, either acting individually or synergistically, on tertiary oil recovery in oil-wet carbonate cores. Three types of anionic-surfactant formulations were used: alkyl propoxy sulfate (APS), which exhibited low interfacial tension (IFT), wettability alteration, and weak foaming; alpha-olefin sulfonate (AOS), which showed no wettability alteration but good foaming; and a blend of APS, AOS, and a zwitterionic-foam booster, which showed low IFT, wettability alteration, and good foaming. First, contact-angle experiments were conducted on oil-wet calcite plates to evaluate their wettability-altering capabilities. Second, spontaneous imbibitions in a microchannel were performed to study the role of IFT reduction and wettability alteration by these formulations. Third, static foam tests were conducted to evaluate their foaming performance in bulk. Fourth, foam-flow experiments were conducted in cores to evaluate potential synergism between the anionic-surfactant AOS and the zwitterionic surfactants in stabilizing foam in the absence of crude oil. Finally, oil-displacement experiments were performed by use of a vuggy, oil-wet, dolomite core saturated with a crude oil. After secondary waterfloods, surfactant solutions were coinjected with methane gas at a fixed foam quality (gas-volume fraction). Contact-angle and spontaneous-imbibition experiments showed that AOS can act as a wettability-altering surfactant in the presence of sodium carbonate, but not alone. No synergy was observed in foam stabilization by means of the blend of zwitterionic surfactant and AOS solution (1:1) in a water-wet carbonate core. Oil-displacement experiments in oil-wet carbonate core revealed that coinjection of wettability-altering surfactant and gas can recover a significant amount of oil [33% original oil in place (OOIP)] over waterflood. During foam flooding, with AOS as the foaming agent, only a weak foam was propagated in a carbonate core, irrespective of the core wettability. A blend of wettability-altering surfactant, AOS, and zwitterionic surfactant not only altered the wettability of carbonate core from oil-wet to water-wet, but also significantly increased the foam-pressure gradient in the presence of crude oil.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Adibhatla, B. and Mohanty, K. K. 2008. Oil Recovery From Fractured Carbonates by Surfactant-Aided Gravity Drainage: Laboratory Experiments and Mechanistic Simulations. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (1): 119–130. SPE-99773-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99773-PA.
Alvarez, J. O., Neog, A., Jais, A. et al. 2014. Impact of Surfactants or Wettability Alteration in Stimulation Fluids and the Potential for Surfactant EOR in Unconventional Liquid Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 1–3 April. SPE-169001-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169001-MS.
Anderson, W. G. 1987. Wettability Literature Survey- Part 4: Effects of Wettability on Capillary Pressure. J. Pet. Technol. 39 (10): 1283–1300. SPE-15271-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15271-PA.
Austad, T., Matre, B., Milter, J. et al. 1998. Chemical Flooding of Oil Reservoirs 8. Spontaneous Oil Expulsion from Oil-and Water-Wet Low Permeable Chalk Material by Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions. Colloid. Surface. A 137 (1–3): 117–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(97)00378-6.
Basheva, E. S., Ganchev, D., Denkov, N. D. et al. 2000. Role of Betaine as Foam Booster in the Presence of Silicone Oil Drops. Langmuir 16 (3): 1000–1013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la990777+.
Blaker, T., Aarra, M. G., Skauge, A. et al. 2002. Foam for Gas Mobility Control in the Snorre Field: The FAWAG Project. SPE Res Eval & Eng 5 (4): 317–323. SPE-78824-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78824-PA.
Boud, D. C. and Holbrook, O. C. 1958. Gas Drive Oil Recovery Process. US Patent No. 2,866,507.
Cayias, J. L., Schechter, R. S. and Wade, W. H. 1975. The Measurement of Low Interfacial Tension via the Spinning Drop Technique. In Adsorption at Interfaces, ed. K. L. Mittal, Chap. 17, 234–247. Oxford, UK: ACS Symposium Series.
Chatzis, I., Morrow, N. R. and Lim, H. T. 1983. Magnitude and Detailed Structure of Residual Oil Saturation. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 23 (2): 311–326. SPE-10681-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10681-PA.
Chen, P. and Mohanty, K. 2013. Surfactant-Mediated Spontaneous Imbibition in Carbonate Rocks at Harsh Reservoir Conditions. SPE J. 18 (1):124–133. SPE-153960-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153960-PA.
Chilingar, G. V. and Yen, T. F. 1983. Some Notes on Wettability and Relative Permeabilities of Carbonate Reservoir Rocks, II. Energy Source. 7 (1): 67–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00908318308908076.
Chou, S. I., Vasicek, S. L., Pisio, D. L. et al. 1992. CO2 Foam Field Trial at North Ward-Estes. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4–7 October. SPE-24643-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24643-MS.
Cuiec, L. E. 1990. Evaluation of Reservoir Wettability and Its Effect on Oil Recovery. In Interfacial Phenomena in Petroleum Recovery, ed. N. R. Morrow, Vol. 36, Chap. 9, 319–376. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Denkov, N. D. 2004. Mechanisms of Foam Destruction by Oil-Based Antifoams. Langmuir 20 (22): 9463–9505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la049676o.
DROPimage Advanced Software. 2015. Rame´-Hart Model 250 Standard Contact Angle Goniometer/Tensiometer with DROPimage Advanced Software 2015. http://ramehart.com/pdf/250.pdf.
Ehrlich, R. and Wygal, R. J. 1977. Interrelation of Crude Oil and Rock Properties With the Recovery of Oil by Caustic Waterflooding. SPE J. 17 (4): 263–270. SPE-5830-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5830-PA.
Falls, A. H., Hirasaki, G. J., Patzek, T. E. A. et al. 1988. Development of a Mechanistic Foam Simulator: The Population Balance and Generation by Snap-Off. SPE Res Eng 3 (3): 884–892. SPE-14961-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14961-PA.
Falls, A. H., Musters, J. J. and Ratulowski, J. 1989. The Apparent Viscosity of Foams in Homogeneous Bead Packs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (2): 155–164. SPE-16048-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16048-PA.
Farajzadeh, R., Krastev, R. and Zitha, P. L. J. 2008. Foam Films Stabilized with Alpha Olefin Sulfonate (AOS). Colloid. Surface. A 324 (1): 35–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2008.03.024.
Gauglitz, P. A., Friedmann, F., Kam, S. I. et al. 2002. Foam Generation in Homogeneous Porous Media. Chem. Eng. Sci. 57 (19): 4037–4052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(02)00340-8.
Gupta, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2010. Temperature Effects on Surfactant-Aided Imbibition Into Fractured Carbonates. SPE J. 15 (3): 588–597. SPE-110204-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110204-PA.
Haugen, A., Fernø, M. A., Graue, A. et al. 2012. Experimental Study of Foam Flow in Fractured Oil-Wet Limestone for Enhanced Oil Recovery. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (2): 218–228. SPE-129763-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129763-PA.
Holm, L. W. 1968. The Mechanism of Gas and Liquid Flow Through Porous Media in the Presence of Foam. SPE J. 8 (4): 359–369. SPE-1848-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1848-PA.
Holt, T., Vassenden, F. and Svorstol, I. 1996. Effects of Pressure on Foam Stability; Implications for Foam Screening. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 21–24 April. SPE-35398-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35398-MS.
Irani, C. A. and Solomon, C. 1986. Slim-Tube Investigation of CO2 Foams. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-14962-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14962-MS.
Kim, T. W. and Kovscek, A. R. 2013. Wettability Alteration of a Heavy Oil/Brine/Carbonate System with Temperature. Energ. Fuel. 27 (6): 2984–2998. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef400204k.
Kuhlman, M. 1990. Visualizing the effect of light oil on CO2 foams. J Pet Technol 42 (7): 902–908. SPE-17356-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17356-PA.
Kumar, K., Dao, E. K. and Mohanty, K. K. 2008. Atomic Force Microscopy Study of Wettability Alteration by Surfactants. SPE J. 13 (2): 137–145. SPE-93009-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93009-PA.
Kovscek, A. R., Tadeusz, W. P. and Radke, C. J. 1997. Mechanistic Foam Flow Simulation in Heterogeneous and Multidimensional Porous Media. SPE J. 2 (4): 511–526. SPE-39102-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39102-PA.
Leach, R. O., Wagner, O. R., Wood, H. W. et al. 1962. A Laboratory and Field Study of Wettability Adjustment in Water Flooding. J Pet Technol 14 (2): 206–212. SPE-119-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119-PA.
Li, R. F., Hirasaki, G., Miller, C. A. et al. 2012. Wettability Alteration and Foam Mobility Control in a Layered, 2D Heterogeneous Sandpack. SPE J. 17 (4): 1–207. SPE-141462-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141462-PA.
Liu, Y., Grigg, R. B. and Svec, R. K. 2005. CO2 Foam Behavior: Influence of Temperature, Pressure, and Concentration of Surfactant. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 16–19 April. SPE-94307-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94307-MS.
Mast, R. F. 1972. Microscopic Behavior of Foam in Porous Media. Presented at the Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, San Antonio, Texas, 8–11 October. SPE-3997-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3997-MS.
Mahani, H., Keya, A. L., Berg, S. et al. 2015. Insights into the Mechanism of Wettability Alteration by Low-Salinity Flooding (LSF) in Carbonates. Energ. Fuel. 29 (3): 1352–1367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef5023847.
McPhee, C., Reed, J. and Zubizarreta, I. (eds.) 2015. Core Sample Preparation. In Developments in Petroleum Science, Vol. 64, Chapter 4, 135–179. Elsevier. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63533-4.00004-4.
Mohan, K., Gupta, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2011. Wettability Altering Secondary Oil Recovery in Carbonate Rocks. Energ. Fuel. 25 (9): 3966–3973. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200449y.
Patzek, T. 1996. Field Applications of Steam Foam for Mobility Improvement and Profile Control. SPE Res Eng 11 (2): 79–86. SPE-29612-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29612-PA.
Ransohoff, T. C. and Radke, C. J. 1988. Mechanisms of Foam Generation in Glass-Bead Packs. SPE Res Eng 3 (2): 573–585. SPE-15441-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15441-PA.
Rasband, W. S. 2008. ImageJ. http://rsbweb.nih.gov/ij/.
Roehl, P. O. and Choquette, P. W. eds. 1985. Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs. New York City: Springer-Verlag.
Rossen, W. R. 1990. Minimum Pressure Gradient for Foam Flow in Porous Media: Effect of Interactions with Stationary Lamellae. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 139 (2): 457–468. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(90)90118-8.
Rossen, W. R. and Gauglitz, P. A. 1990. Percolation Theory of Creation and Mobilization of Foams in Oorous Media. AIChE J. 36 (8): 1176–1188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690360807.
Rosen, M. J. and Zhu, B. Y. 1984. Synergism in Binary Mixtures of Surfactants: III. Betaine-Containing Systems. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 99 (2): 427–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(84)90129-2.
Rossen, W. R., Van Duijn, C. J., Nguyen, Q. P. et al. 2010. Injection Strategies To Overcome Gravity Segregation in Simultaneous Gas and Water Injection Into Homogeneous Reservoirs. SPE J. 15 (1): 76–90. SPE-99794-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99794-PA.
Sanchez, J. M. and Hazlett, R. D. 1992. Foam Flow Through an Oil-Wet Porous Medium: A Laboratory Study. SPE Res Eng 7 (1): 91–91. SPE-19687-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19687-PA.
Schembre, J. M., Tang, G. and Kovscek, A. R. 2006. Interrelationship of Temperature and Wettability on the Relative Permeability of Heavy Oil in Diatomaceous Rocks. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (3): 239–250. SPE-93831-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93831-PA.
Schramm, L. L. and Mannhardt, K. 1996. The Effect of Wettability on Foam Sensitivity to Crude Oil in Porous Media. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 15 (1): 101–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(95)00068-2.
Seethepalli, A., Adibhatla, B. and Mohanty, K. K. 2004. Physicochemical Interactions During Surfactant Flooding of Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE J. 9 (4): 411–418. SPE-89423-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89423-PA.
Shariatpanahi, S. F., Strand, S. and Austad, T. 2011. Initial Wetting Properties of Carbonate Oil Reservoirs: Effect of the Temperature and Presence of Sulfate in Formation Water. Energ. Fuel. 25 (7): 3021–3028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200033h.
Sharma, G. and Mohanty, K. 2013. Wettability Alteration in High-Temperature and High-Salinity Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE J. 18 (4): 646–655. SPE-147306-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147306-PA.
Singh, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2014a. Foams Stabilized by In-Situ Surface Activated Nanoparticles in Bulk and Porous Media. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 27–29 October. SPE-170942-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170942-MS.
Singh, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2014b. Synergistic Stabilization of Foams by a Mixture of Nanoparticles and Surfactants. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169126-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169126-MS.
Singh, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2015a. Foams Stabilized by In-Situ Surface-Activated Nanoparticles in Bulk and Porous Media. SPE J. SPE-170942-PA (in press; posted March 2015).
Singh, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2015b. Synergy Between Nanoparticles and Surfactants in Stabilizing Foams for Oil Recovery. Energ. Fuel. 29 (2): 467–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef5015007.
Singh, R., Gupta, A., Mohanty, K. K. et al. 2015. Fly Ash Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO2-in-Water Foams for Gas Mobility Control Applications. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-175057-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/175057-MS.
Strand, S., Standnes, D. C. and Austad, T. 2003. Spontaneous Imbibition of Aqueous Surfactant Solutions into Neutral to Oil-Wet Carbonate Cores: Effects of Brine Salinity and Composition. Energ. Fuel. 17 (5): 1133–1144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef030051s.
Tang, G. Q. and Morrow, N. R. 1997. Salinity, Temperature, Oil Composition, and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. SPE Res Eng 12 (4): 269–276. SPE-36680-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36680-PA.
Vikingstad, A. K., Skauge, A., Høiland, H. et al. 2005. Foam-oil Interations Analyzed by Static Foam Tests. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physiochemical and Engineering Aspects 260 (1–3): 189–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2005.02.034.
Wang, L. and Mohanty, K. 2014. Enhanced Oil Recovery in Gasflooded Carbonate Reservoirs by Wettability-Altering Surfactants. SPE J. 20 (1): 60–69. SPE-166283-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166283-PA.
World Energy Outlook. 2006. Report, International Energy Agency and US Energy Information Administration, Paris, France.
Yu, L. and Wardlaw, N. C. 1986. The Influence of Wettability and Critical Pore-Throat Size Ratio on Snap-off. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 109 (2): 461–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(86)90324-3.
Zhang, D. L., Liu, S., Puerto, M. et al. 2006. Wettability Alteration and Spontaneous Imbibition in Oil-Wet Carbonate Formations. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 52 (1): 213–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2006.03.009.