A Comparison of Three Nonoxidizing Biocides and Chlorine Dioxide in Treating Marcellus Shale Production Waters
- Carl W. Erkenbrecher (The Chemours Company) | Sherrill Nurnberg (The Chemours Company) | Amy D. Breyla (The Chemours Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 368 - 374
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- sulfate reducing bacteria, biocides, chlorine dioxide, Marcellus shale play
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 444 since 2007
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Chlorine dioxide (ClO2), a relative new addition to the oil and gas fracturing industry (especially for production-water treatment for reuse), has superior microbial efficacy compared with currently used nonoxidizing biocides at their lowest and mid-range US Environmental Protection Agency approved concentrations. ClO2 is the only antimicrobial treatment to exhibit complete kill of any of the bacterial populations [except tetrakishydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate (THPS) at 208 ppm (commodity basis) in 100% Marcellus shale production water], and demonstrated greater than 5.16 log10 reduction even at the lowest ClO2 residual tested (i.e., 1.19 ppm residual; 9 ppm dose). As a result, ClO2 should be considered a potentially viable option when selecting a biocide for treating fracturing production waters for reuse in the Marcellus shale play.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||7|
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