Development of a Thermal Wellbore Simulator With Focus on Improving Heat-Loss Calculations for Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Steam Injection
- Wanqiang Xiong (University of Calgary) | Mehdi Bahonar | Zhangxing (John) Chen (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 305 - 315
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- wellbore modeling
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 348 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Typical thermal processes involve sophisticated wellbore configurations, complex fluid flow, and heat transfer in tubing, annulus, wellbore completion, and surrounding formation. Despite notable advancements made in wellbore modeling, accurate heat-loss modeling is still a challenge by use of the existing wellbore simulators. This challenge becomes even greater when complex but common wellbore configurations, such as multiparallel or multiconcentric tubings, are used in thermal processes such as steamassisted gravity drainage (SAGD). To improve heat-loss estimation, a standalone fully implicit thermal wellbore simulator is developed that can handle several different wellbore configurations and completions. This simulator uses a fully implicit method to model heat loss from tubing walls to the surrounding formation. Instead of implementing the common Ramey (1962) method for heat-loss calculations, which has been shown to be a source of large errors, a series of computational- fluid-dynamics (CFD) models are run for the buoyancydriven flow for different annulus sizes and lengths and numbers of tubings. On the basis of these CFD models, correlations are derived that can conveniently be used for the more-accurate heat-loss estimation from the wellbore to the surrounding formation for SAGD injection wells with single or multiple tubing strings. These correlations are embedded in the developed wellbore simulator, and results are compared with other heat-loss modeling methods to demonstrate its improvements. A series of validations against commercial simulators and field data are presented in this paper.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Bahonar, M. 2011. Transient Nonisothermal Wellbore Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Modeling. PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary.
Bahonar, M., Azaiez, J. and Chen, Z. 2009. A Semi-Unsteady-State Wellbore Steam/Water Flow Model for Prediction of Sandface Conditions in Steam Injection Wells. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 16–18 June. PETSOC-2009-005. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2009-005.
Cao, H. 2002. Development of Techniques for General Purpose Simulators. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Churchill, S. W. 1983. Heat Exchanger Design Handbook. New York City: Hemisphere Publishing.
Computer Modelling Group. 2015. STARS Thermal Simulator. General Release. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. http://www.cmgl.ca.
Dong, C. 2012. An Integrated Multi-Component Reservoir-Wellbore Thermal Model. PhD dissertation, University of Calgary, Calgary.
Dropkin, D. and Sommerscales, E. 1965. Heat Transfer by Natural Convection in Liquids Confined by Two Parallel Plates Inclined at Various Angles with Respect to the Horizontal. J. Heat Transfer 87 (1): 77–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.3689057.
Farouq Ali, S. M. 1981. A Comprehensive Wellbore Steam/Water Flow Model for Steam Injection Wells. SPE J. 21 (5): 527–534. SPE-7966-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7966-PA.
FLUENT. 2011. ANSYS, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, USA. http://www.ansys.com.
Fontanilla, J. P. and Aziz, K. 1982. Prediction of Bottom-Hole Conditions for Wet Steam Injection Wells. J Can Pet Technol 21 (2): 82–88. PETSOC-82-02-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/82-02-04.
Hamad, F. A. and Khan, M. K. 1998. Natural Convection Heat Transfer in Horizontal and Inclined Annuli of Different Diameter Ratios. Energ. Convers. Manage. 39 (8): 797–807. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(97)10010-3.
Hasan, A. R. and Kabir, C. S. 2002. Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Wellbores. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Hasan, A. R., Kabir, C. S. and Sayarpour, M. 2007. A Basic Approach to Wellbore Two-Phase Flow Modeling. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11–14 November. SPE-109868-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109868-MS.
Inaba, Y., Zhang, Y., Takeda, T. et al. 2005. Natural Convection Heat Transfer of High Temperature Gas in an Annulus Between Two Vertical Concentric Cylinders. Heat Transfer Asian Res. 34 (5): 293–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/htj.20070.
Livescu, S., Durlofsky, L. J. and Aziz, K. 2008a. Application of a New Fully-Coupled Thermal Multiphase Wellbore Flow Model. Presented at the SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-113215-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113215-MS.
Livescu, S., Durlofsky, L. J. and Aziz, K. 2008b. A Semianalytical Thermal Mutiphase Wellbore Flow Model for Use in Reservoir Simulation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE-115796-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115796-MS.
Livescu, S., Durlofsky, L. J., Aziz, K. et al. 2010. A Fully-Coupled Thermal Multiphase Wellbore Flow Model for Use in Reservoir Simulation. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 71 (3–4): 138–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.11.022.
Pourafshary, P., Varavei, A., Sepehrnoori, K., et al. 2008. A Compositional Wellbore/Reservoir Simulator to Model Multiphase Flow and Temperature Distribution. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3–5 December. IPTC-12115-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/12115-MS.
Raithby, G. D. and Hollands, K. G. T. 1974. Laminar and Turbulent Heat Transfer by Natural Convection. Int. J. Heat Mass 17 (12): 1620–1622. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(74)90070-2.
Ramey, H. J. Jr. 1962. Wellbore Heat Transmission. J Pet Technol 14 (4): 427–435. SPE-96-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-PA.
Shi, H., Holmes, J. A., Durlofsky, L. J. et al. 2005a. Drift-Flux Modeling of Two-Phase Flow in Wellbores. SPE J. 10 (1): 24–33. SPE-84228-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84228-PA.
Shi, H., Holmes, J. A., Diaz, L. R. et al. 2005b. Drift-Flux Parameters for Three-Phase Steady-State Flow in Wellbores. SPE J. 10 (2): 130–137. SPE-89836-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89836-PA.
Stone, T. W., Edmunds, N. R. and Kristoff, B. J. 1989. A Comprehensive Wellbore/Reservoir Simulator. Presented at the SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, Houston, 6–8 February. SPE-18419-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18419-MS.
Weng, L. C. and Chu, H. S. 1996. Combined Natural Convection Radiation in a Vertical Annulus. Heat Mass Transfer 31 (6): 371–379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02172581.
Willhite, G. P. 1967. Over-all Heat Transfer Coefficients in Steam And Hot Water Injection Wells. J Pet Technol 19 (5): 607–615. SPE-1449-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1449-PA.