Quantitative Evaluation of Critical Conditions Required for Effective Hole Cleaning in Coiled-Tubing Drilling of Horizontal Wells
- Majid Bizhani (University of Alberta) | Fabio Ernesto Rodriguez Corredor (University of Alberta) | Ergun Kuru (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- September 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 188 - 199
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- hole cleaning, turbulent flow, critical shear stress, horizontal well, non-newtonian fluid flow
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 413 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The problem of solids cleanout in horizontal wellbores was studied experimentally. The special case of drilling-fluid circulation with no inner-pipe rotation was considered. This case is similar to coiled tubing (CT) drilling in which frequent hole cleanout must be performed. Sand-sized cuttings (ranging from 260 to 1240 µm) were used. Critical velocity and wall shear stress required for starting bed erosion were measured. Water and viscous-polymer base fluids with three different polymer concentrations were used. Results have shown that water always starts cuttings movement at lower flow rates than polymer solutions. Fluids with higher polymer concentration (and higher viscosity) required higher flow rates to start eroding the bed. Critical wall shear stress was also determined from pressure-loss measurements. Analyzing the data revealed that water starts cuttings removal at lower pressure loss than more-viscous fluids. Higher-viscosity fluids always showed higher pressure loss at the start of bed erosion. For the range of cuttings size studied, results show that an intermediate cuttings size was slightly easier to remove. However, the impact of cuttings size was far less than that of fluid rheology. Overall cuttings size was found to have a small impact on hole cleaning. Dimensionless analysis of parameters relevant to the process of cuttings movement was performed. It was shown that dimensionless wall shear stress (in the forms of Shields’ stress and also ratio of shear velocity to settling velocity) at the onset of bed erosion correlated well with particle Reynolds number. On the basis of this finding, two correlations were developed to predict critical wall shear stress. A procedure was developed to calculate critical flow rate as well. Friction-factor data for the flow through the annulus with a stationary cuttings bed are also reported.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Adari, R. B. 1999. Development of Correlations Relating Bed Erosion to Flowing Time for Near Horizontal Wells. MSc thesis, University of Tulsa (December).
Adari, R. B., Miska, S. Z., Kuru, E. et al. 2000. Selecting Drilling Fluid Properties and Flow Rates for Effective Hole Cleaning in High-Angle and Horizontal Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-63050-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/63050-MS.
Allahvirdizadeh, P., Kuru, E., and Parlaktuna, M. 2015. A Comparative Study of Cuttings Transport Performance of Water Versus Polymer-Based Fluids in Horizontal Well. Presented at the 20th International Petroleum and Natural Gas Congress and Exhibition of Turkey, Ankara, Turkey, 27–29 May.
Azar, J. J. and Sanchez, R. A. 1997. Important Issues in Cuttings Transport for Drilling Directional Wells. Presented at the Fifth Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference and Exhibition, Rio de Janeiro, 30 August–3 Spetember. SPE-39020-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39020-MS.
Bilgesu, H. I., Mishra, N., and Ameri, S. 2007. Understanding the Effect of Drilling Parameters on Hole Cleaning in Horizontal and Deviated Wellbores Using Computational Fluid Dynamics. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, 17–19 October. SPE-111208-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111208-MS.
Bizhani, M. 2013. Solids Transport With Turbulent Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluid in the Horizontal Annuli. MSc thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada (December).
Bohlin Users Manual. 2016. Malvern Instruments, Inc., http://www.malvern.com/en/support/resource-center/default.aspx (accessed 25 May 2016).
Brown, N. P., Bern, P. A., and Weaver, A. 1989. Cleaning Deviated Holes: New Experimental and Theoretical Studies. Presented at the SPE\IADC Drilling Conference New Orleans, 28–30 February. SPE-18636-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18636-MS.
Cho, H., Shah, S. N., and Osisanya, S. O. 2000. A Three-Layer Modeling for Cuttings Transport With Coiled Tubing Horizontal Drilling. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-63269-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/63269-MS.
Drilling Mud and Cement Slurry Rheology Manual. 1982. Paris: Gulf Publishing Co. Editions Technip.
Duan, M., Miska, S. Z., Yu, M. et al. 2007. Critical Conditions for Effective Sand-Sized Solids Transport in Horizontal and High-Angle Wells. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 31 March–3 April. SPE-106707-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106707-MS.
Garcia, M. H. 2008. Sedimentation Engineering: Processes, Measurements, Modeling, and Practice. American Society of Civil Engineers.
Haciislamoglu, M. 1994. Practical Pressure Loss Predictions in Realistic Annular Geometries. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 25–28 September. SPE-28304-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28304-MS.
Kelessidis, V. C., Mpandelis, G., Koutroulis, A. et al. 2002. Significant Parameters Affecting Efficient Cuttings Transport in Horizontal and Deviated Wellbores in Coil Tubing Drilling: A Critical Review. Presented at the 1st International Symposium of the Faculty of Mines (ITU) on Earth Sciences and Engineering, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey, 16–18 May.
Kelessidis, V. C. and Bandelis, G. E. 2004. Flow Patterns and Minimum Suspension Velocity for Efficient Cuttings Transport in Horizontal and Deviated Wells in Coiled-Tubing Drilling. SPE Drill & Compl 19 (4): 213–227. SPE-81746-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81746-PA.
Larsen, T. I., Pilehvari, A. A., and Azar, J. J. 1997. Development of a New Cuttings-Transport Model for High-Angle Wellbores Including Horizontal Wells. SPE Drill & Compl 12 (2): 129–135. SPE-25872-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25872-PA.
Leising, L. J. and Walton, I. C. 2002. Cuttings-Transport Problems and Solutions in Coiled-Tubing Drilling. SPE Drill & Compl 17 (1): 54–66. SPE-77261-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77261-PA.
Li, J. and Walker, S. 1999. Sensitivity Analysis of Hole Cleaning Parameters in Directional Wells. Presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable, Houston, 25–26 May. SPE-54498-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54498-MS.
Li, J., Wilde, G., and Crabtree, A. R. 2005. Do Complex Super-Gel Liquids Perform Better Than Simple Linear Liquids in Hole Cleaning With Coiled Tubing? Presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, 12–13 April, SPE-94185-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94185-MS.
Li, J., Misselbrook, J., and Seal, J. W. 2008. Sand Cleanout With Coiled Tubing: Choice of Process, Tools, or Fluids? Presented at the Europec/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, Rome, 9–12 June. SPE-113267-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113267-MS.
Li, J. and Luft, B. 2014a. Overview of Solids Transport Studies and Applications in Oil and Gas Industry—Experimental Work. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Exploration & Production Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 14–16 October. SPE-171285-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171285-MS.
Li, J. and Luft, B. 2014b. Overview Solids Transport Study and Application in Oil-Gas Industry-Theoretical Work. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 10–12 December. IPTC-17832-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17832-MS.
Lourenco, A. M. F., Nakagawa, E. Y., Martins, A. L. et al. 2006. Investigating Solids-Carrying Capacity for an Optimized Hydraulics Program in Aerated Polymer-Based-Fluid Drilling. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Miami, Florida, 21–23 February. SPE-99113-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99113-MS.
Luo, Y., Bern, P. A., and Chambers, B. D. 1992. Flow-Rate Predictions for Cleaning Deviated Wells. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, New Orleans, 18–21 February. SPE-23884-MS. SPE-23884-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23884-MS.
Martins, A. L. and Santana, C. C. 1992. Evaluation of Cuttings Transport in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Wells—A Dimensionless Approach. Presented at the SPE Latin America Petroleum Engineering Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 8–11 March. SPE-23643-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23643-MS.
Martins, A. L., Sa, C. H. M., Lourenco, A. M. F. et al. 1996. Optimizing Cuttings Circulation in Horizontal Well Drilling. Presented at the International Petroleum Conference & Exhibition of Mexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, 5–7 March. SPE-35341-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35341-MS.
National Instrument. 2007. http://www.ni.com/manuals/ (accessed 18 December 2015).
Nazari, T., Hareland, G., and Azar, J. J. 2010. Review of Cuttings Transport in Directional Well Drilling: Systematic Approach. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, 27–29 May. SPE-132372-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132372-MS.
Ozbayoglu, M. E., Miska, S. Z., Reed, T. et al. 2004. Analysis of the Effects of Major Drilling Parameters on Cuttings Transport Efficiency for High-Angle Wells in Coiled Tubing Drilling Operations. Presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 23–24 March. SPE-89334-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89334-MS.
Pilehvari, A. A., Azar, J. J., and Shirazi, S. A. 1996. State-of-the-Art Cuttings Transport in Horizontal Wellbores. Presented at the International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, 18–20 November. SPE-37079-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37079-MS.
Ramadan, A., Skalle, P., and Johansen, S. T. 2003. A Mechanistic Model To Determine the Critical Flow Velocity Required To Initiate the Movement of Spherical Bed Particles in Inclined Channels. Chemical Engineering Science 58 (10): 2153–2163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2509(03)00061-7.
Reed, T. D. and Pilehvari, A. A. 1993. A New Model for Laminar, Transitional, and Turbulent Flow of Drilling Muds. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 21–23 March. SPE-25456-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25456-MS.
Rodriguez-Corredor, F. E., Bizhani, M., and Kuru, E. 2014. A Comparative Study of Hole Cleaning Performance—Water Versus Drag Reducing Fluid. Presented at the ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, San Francisco, 8–13 June, http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2014-24083.
Saasen, A. and Løklingholm, G. 2002. The Effect of Drilling Fluid Rheological Properties on Hole Cleaning. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Dallas, 26–28 February. SPE-74558-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74558-MS.
Shah, S. N., El Fadili, Y., and Chhabra, R. P. 2007. New Model for Single Spherical Particle Settling Velocity in Power Law (Visco-Inelastic) Fluids. International Journal of Multiphase Flow 33 (1): 51–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2006.06.006.
Shields, A. 1936. Anwendung der Ähnlichkeitsmechanik und der Turbulenzforschung auf die Geschiebebewegung, Eigenverl. der Preußischen Versuchsanst. für Wasserbau und Schiff.
Sorgun, M., Aydin, I., and Ozbayoglu, M. E. 2011. Friction Factors for Hydraulic Calculations Considering Presence of Cuttings and Pipe Rotation in Horizontal/Highly-Inclined Wellbores. J. Petrol. Sci. Eng. 78 (2): 407–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.06.013.
Thomas, R. P., Azar, J. J., and Becker, T. E. 1982. Drillpipe Eccentricity Effect on Drilled Cuttings Behavior in Vertical Wellbores. J Pet Technol 34 (9). SPE-9701-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9701-PA.
Tomren, P. H., Iyoho, A. W., and Azar, J. J. 1986. Experimental Study of Cuttings Transport in Directional Wells. SPE Drill Eng 1 (1). SPE-12123-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12123-PA.
Valluri, S. G., Miska, S. Z., Yu, M. et al. 2006. Experimental Study of Effective Hole Cleaning Using “Sweeps” in Horizontal Wellbores. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, 24–27 September. SPE-101220-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101220-MS.
Walker, S. and Li, J. 2000. The Effects of Particle Size, Fluid Rheology, and Pipe Eccentricity on Cuttings Transport. Presented at the SPE/ICoTA Coiled Tubing Roundtable, Houston, 5–6 April. SPE-60755-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/60755-MS.
Wilson, K. C. and Thomas, A. D. 1985. A New Analysis of the Turbulent-Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 63 (4): 539–546.
Xiaofeng, S., Wang, K., Yan, T. et al. 2013. Review of Hole Cleaning in Complex Structural Wells. The Open Petroleum Engineering Journal 6: 25–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874834101306010025.