Natural Fractures and Mechanical Properties in a Horn River Shale Core From Well Logs and Hardness Measurements
- Sheng Yang (University of Calgary) | Nicholas B. Harris (University of Alberta) | Tian Dong (University of Alberta) | Wei Wu (University of Calgary) | Zhangxing Chen (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 671 - 682
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Natural Fractures, Hardness, Mechanical Property, Orthogonal Regression, Brittleness
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 291 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This paper documents the formation of natural fractures in the Horn River Group, a major Canadian shale gas play, and addresses relationships between natural-fracture development and rock-mechanical properties derived from cores and well logs. Most natural fractures in the Horn River Shale are narrow vertical fractures, sealed with carbonate minerals. In this study, the formation of observed fractures is primarily determined by a lithology type, mineral composition, and rock-mechanical properties at the timing of fracturing.
Brittleness is an important geomechanical property controlling the formation of fractures, because brittle shale is more easily fractured than ductile shale, and fractures in brittle shale tend to persist when the fracturing pressure is released. In this study, a hardness value measured by a commercial hardness tester is found to be a good proxy for the brittleness of shale layers. On the basis of a statistical analysis, the threshold values of both hardness and brittleness are estimated to predict the distribution of natural fractures, assuming that the mechanical properties of the host rock were relatively stable from at least the time at which fractures formed. Hardness values are shown to be more reliable than brittleness.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Ameen, M. S. and Hailwood, E. A. 2008. A New Technology for the Characterization of Microfractured Reservoirs (Test Case: Unayzah Reservoir, Wudayhi Field, Saudi Arabia). AAPG Bull. 92 (1): 31–52. https://doi.org/10.1306/08200706090.
Ameen, M. S., Smart, B. G., Somerville, J. M. et al. 2009. Predicting Rock Mechanical Properties of Carbonates From Wireline Logs (A Case Study: Arab-D Reservoir, Ghawar Field, Saudi Arabia). Marine and Petroleum Geology 26 (4): 430–444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2009.01.017.
Ameen, M. S., Buhidma, I. M., and Rahim, Z. 2010. The Function of Fractures and In-Situ Stresses in the Khuff Reservoir Performance, Onshore Fields, Saudi Arabia. AAPG Bull. 94 (1): 27–60. https://doi.org/10.1306/06160909012.
Ameen, M. S., MacPherson, K., Al-Marhoon, M. I. et al. 2012. Diverse Fracture Properties and Their Impact on Performance in Conventional and Tight-Gas Reservoirs, Saudi Arabia: The Unayzah, South Haradh Case Study. AAPG Bull. 96 (3): 459–492. https://doi.org/10.1306/06011110148.
Ameen, M. S. 2014. Fracture and In-Situ Stress Patterns and Impact on Performance in the Khuff Structural Prospects, Eastern Offshore Saudi Arabia. Marine and Petroleum Geology 50: 166–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2013.10.004.
Ameen, M. S. 2016. Fracture Modes in the Silurian Qusaiba Shale Play, Northern Saudi Arabia and Their Geomechanical Implications. Marine and Petroleum Geology 78: 312–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2016.07.013.
British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission. 2014. Horn River Basin Unconventional Shale Gas Play Atlas, 15 pp.
Britt, L. K. and Schoeffler, J. 2009. The Geomechanics of a Shale Play: What Makes a Shale Prospective? Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, 23–25 September. SPE-125525-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/125525-MS.
Curtis, J. B. 2002. Fractured Shale-Gas Systems. AAPG Bull. 86 (11): 1921–1938. https://doi.org/10.1306/61EEDDBE-173E-11D7-8645000102C1865D.
Dahi-Taleghani, A. and Olson, J. E. 2011. Numerical Modeling of Multistranded-Hydraulic-Fracture Propagation: Accounting for the Interaction Between Induced and Natural Fractures. SPE J. 16 (3): 575–581. SPE 124884-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/124884-PA.
Dong, T., Harris, N. B., Ayranci, K. et al. 2015. Porosity Characteristics of the Devonian Horn River Shale, Canada: Insights From Lithofacies Classification and Shale Composition. International Journal of Coal Geology 141: 74–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2015.03.001.
Dong, T., Harris, N. B., Ayranci, K. et al. 2017a. The Impact of Composition on Pore Throat Size and Permeability in High-Maturity Shales: Middle and Upper Devonian Horn River Group, Northeastern British Columbia, Canada. Marine and Petroleum Geology 81: 220–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2017.01.011.
Dong, T., Harris, N. B., Ayranci, K. et al. 2017b. The Impact of Rock Composition on Geomechanical Properties in a Shale Formation: Middle and Upper Devonian Horn River Group Shale, Northeast British Columbia, Canada. AAPG Bull. 101 (2): 177–204. https://doi.org/10.1306/07251615199.
Evans, J. D. 1996. Straightforward Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Brooks/Cole.
Fuller, W. A. 1987. Measurement Error Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Gale, J. F. W., Reed, R. M., and Holder, J. 2007. Natural Fractures in the Barnett Shale and Their Importance for Hydraulic Fracture Treatment. AAPG Bull. 91 (4): 603–622. https://doi.org/10.1306/11010606061.
Gale, J. F., Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E. et al. 2014. Natural Fractures in Shale: A Review and New Observations. AAPG Bull. 98 (11): 2165–2216. https://doi.org/10.1306/08121413151.
Grieser, B. and Bary, J. 2007. Identification of Production Potential in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 31 March–3 April. SPE-106623-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/106623-MS.
Gross, M. R. 1995. Fracture Partitioning: Failure Mode as a Function of Lithology in the Monterey Formation of Coastal California. Geological Society of America Bull. 107 (7): 779-792. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1995)107<0779:FPFMAA>2.3CO;2.
Gross, M. R., Gutie, G., Bai, T. et al. 1997. Influence of Mechanical Stratigraphy and Kinematics on Fault Scaling Relations. Journal of Structural Geology 19 (2): 171–183. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(96)00085-5.
Gross, M. R. and Eyal, Y. 2007. Throughgoing Fractures in Layered Carbonate Rocks. Geological Society of America Bull. 119 (11–12): 1387–1404. https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(2007)119[1387:TFILCR]2.0.CO;2.
Harris, N. B. and Dong, T. 2012. Porosity and Pore Sizes in the Horn River Shales. Unconventional Gas Technical Forum 2012, British Columbia.
Jarvie, D. M., Hill, R. J., Ruble, T. E. et al. 2007. Unconventional Shale-Gas Systems: The Mississippian Barnett Shale of North-Central Texas as One Model for Thermogenic Shale-Gas Assessment. AAPG Bull. 91 (4): 475–499. https://doi.org/10.1306/12190606068.
Khan, S., Ansari, S., Han, H. et al. 2012. Understanding Shale Heterogeneity—Key to Minimizing Drilling Problems in Horn River Basin. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, San Diego, California, 6–8 March. SPE-151752-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/151752-MS.
King, G. E. 2010. Thirty Years of Gas Shale Fracturing: What Have We Learned? Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-133456-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/133456-MS.
Kresse, O., Cohen, C., Weng, X. et al. 2011. Numerical Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing in Naturally Fractured Formations. Presented at the 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, California, 26–29 June. ARMA 11-363.
Kulandaer, B. B., Dean, S. L., and Ward, B. J.Jr., 1990. Fracture Core Analysis: Interpretation, Logging, and Use of Natural and Induced Fractures in Core. AAPG Method in Exploration Series, No. 8.
Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E., and Gale, J. F. 2004. Are Open Fractures Necessarily Aligned With Maximum Horizontal Stress? Earth and Planetary Science Letters 222 (1): 191–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2004.02.019.
Laubach, S. E., Olson, J. E., and Gross, M. R. 2009. Mechanical and Fracture Stratigraphy. AAPG Bull. 93 (11): 1413–1426. https://doi.org/10.1306/07270909094.
Lezin, C., Odonne, F., Massonnat, G. J. et al. 2009. Dependence of Joint Spacing on Rock Properties in Carbonate Strata. AAPG Bull. 93 (2): 271–290. https://doi.org/10.1306/09150808023.
Lorenz, J. C., Teufel, L. W., and Warpinski, N. R. 1991. Regional Fractures I: A Mechanism for the Formation of Regional Fractures at Depth in Flat-Lying Reservoirs (1). AAPG Bull. 75 (11): 1714–1737.
Madansky, A. 1959. The Fitting of Straight Lines When Both Variables Are Subject to Error. Journal of the American Statistical Association 54: 173–205. https://doi.org/10.2307/2282145.
Mandel, J. 1984. Fitting Straight Lines When Both Variables Are Subject to Error. Journal of Quality Technology 16 (1): 1–14.
Marrett, R., Ortega, O. J., and Kelsey, C. M. 1999. Extent of Power-Law Scaling for Natural Fractures in Rock. Geology 27 (9): 799–802. https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0799:EOPLSF>2.3.CO;2.
Mullen, M., Roundtree, R., and Barree, B. 2007. A Composite Determination of Mechanical Rock Properties for Stimulation Design (What to Do When You Don’t Have a Sonic Log). Denver, 16–18 April. SPE-108139-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/108139-MS.
Narr, W. 1996. Estimating Average Fracture Spacing in Subsurface Rock. AAPG Bull. 80 (10): 1565–1585. https://doi.org/10.1306/64EDA0B4-1724-1107-8645000102C1865D.
Nelson, R. 2001. Geologic Analysis of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. Gulf Professional Publishing.
Olson, J. E., Laubach, S. E., and Lander, R. H. 2009. Natural Fracture Characterization in Tight Gas Sandstones: Integrating Mechanics and Diagenesis. AAPG Bull. 93 (11): 1535–1549. https://doi.org/10.1306/08110909100.
Olson, J. E., Laubach, S. E., and Eichhubl, P. 2010. Estimating Natural Fracture Producibility in Tight Gas Sandstones: Coupling Diagenesis With Geomechanical Modeling. The Leading Edge 29 (12): 1494–1499. https://doi.org/10.1190/1.3525366.
Ortega, O. J., Marrett, R. A., and Laubach, S. E. 2006. A Scale-Independent Approach to Fracture Intensity and Average Spacing Measurement. AAPG Bull. 90 (2): 193–208. https://doi.org/10.1306/08250505059.
Potter, C. C. and Foltinek, D. S. 1997. Formation Elastic Parameters by Deriving S-Wave Velocity Log. In CREWES Research Report, Vol. 9.
Price, N. J. 1966. Fault and Joint Development: In Brittle and Semi-Brittle Rock. Elsevier.
Price, N. J. and Cosgrove, J. W. 1990. Analysis of Geological Structures. Cambridge University Press.
Proceq SA Inc. 2016. Operating Instructions Manual Equotip Bambino 2.
Reynolds, M. M. and Munn, D. L. 2010. Development Update for an Emerging Shale Gas Giant Field-Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 23–25 February. SPE-130103-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/130103-MS.
Rickman, R., Mullen, M., Petre, E. et al. 2008. A Practical Use of Shale Petrophysics for Stimulation Design Optimization: All Shale Plays Are Not Clones of the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE-115258-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/115258-MS.
Rogers, S., Dunphy, R., and Bearinger, D. 2010. Understanding Hydraulic Fracture Geometry. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-137488-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/137488-MS.
Wang, F. P. and Gale, J. R. W. 2009. Screening Criteria for Shale-Gas Systems. Trans., Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies 59: 779–793.
Warpinski, N. R. and Teufel, L. W. 1987. Influence of Geologic Discontinuities on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation. J Pet Technol 39 (2): 209–220. SPE-13224-PA. https://doi.org/10.2118/13224-PA.
Yang, S., Chen, Z., Wu, W. et al. 2015a. Address Microseismic Uncertainty From Geological Aspect to Improve Accuracy of Estimated Stimulated Reservoir Volumes. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC, Madrid, Spain, 1–4 June. SPE-174286-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/174286-MS.
Yang, S., Chen, Z., Wei, Y. et al. 2015b. A Simulation Model for Accurate Prediction of Uneven Proppant Distribution in the Marcellus Shale Coupled With Reservoir Geomechanics. Presented at the SPE East Regional Meeting, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA, 13–15 October. SPE-177286-MS. https://doi.org/10.2118/177286-MS.
Yu, W. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014. Simulation of Gas Desorption and Geomechanics Effects for Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. Fuel 116: 455–464. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.08.032.