Single-Well Chemical-Tracer Modeling of Low-Salinity-Water Injection in Carbonates
- Emad W. Al-Shalabi (Petroleum Institute) | Haishan Luo (University of Texas at Austin) | Mojdeh Delshad (University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 118 - 133
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Modeling of SWCTT in Carbonates, Estimation of Residual Oil Saturation from SWCTT, Single Well Chemical Tracer Test (SWCTT), Modeling of LSWI in Carbonates, Low Salinity Water Injection (LSWI)
- 17 in the last 30 days
- 360 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The interest in low-salinity-water injection (LSWI) compared with seawater injection or high-salinity-produced-brine injection is increasing in both laboratory and field tests. The single-well chemical-tracer test (SWCTT) is also becoming increasingly popular as an in-situ test to assess the reduction in oil saturation caused by an enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) process. Hence, accurate modeling of SWCTTs is essential. In this paper, modeling and simulation of the SWCTT of LSWI in a carbonate reservoir is investigated by use of the UTCHEM reservoir simulator, a nonisothermal, 3D, multiphase, multicomponent, chemical compositional simulator developed at the University of Texas at Austin (UTCHEM 2011). Both radial- and Cartesian-grid models are set up for a field-scale pilot by use of measured rock and fluid data of a Middle Eastern reservoir. Tracer reactions and the empirical LSWI model implemented in UTCHEM are used to estimate residual oil saturation (ROS) as a result of LSWI. Two approaches are used to estimate ROS to LSWI, including analytical and numerical methods. Results show that both approaches give consistent values for ROS for homogeneous radial- and Cartesian-grid models. The two approaches were inconsistent for the multilayer radial model, which highlights the necessity of the use of numerical approaches for layered reservoirs. The Cartesian-grid model was used to investigate the effect of heterogeneity on SWCTT results, where a new numerical approach is proposed for estimating ROS. This finding validates the approach used and the implementation of both tracer reactions and the LSWI model in UTCHEM. The proposed approach can now be used to estimate ROS of the SWCTT for reservoirs with different degrees of heterogeneity, which provides a clear insight into reservoir performance before planning multiwell demonstration pilots.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Allison, S. B. 1988. Analysis and Design of Field Tracers for Reservoir Description. Master’s thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Allison, S. B., Pope, G. A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1991. Analysis of Field Tracers for Reservoir Description. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 5 (2): 173–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(91)90066-V.
Al-Shalabi, E. W. 2014. Modeling the Effect of Injecting Low Salinity Water on Oil Recovery from Carbonate Reservoirs. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Texas.
Al-Shalabi, E. W., Sepehrnoori, K., Delshad, M. et al. 2014a. A Novel Method to Model Low Salinity Water Injection in Carbonate Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 31 March–2 April. SPE-169674-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169674-MS.
Al-Shalabi, E. W., Sepehrnoori, K., Pope, G. et al. 2014b. A Fundamental Model for Prediction Oil Recovery due to Low Salinity Water Injection in Carbonate Rocks. Presented at the SPE Energy Resources Confernece, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, 9–11 June. SPE-169911-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169911-MS.
Al-Shalabi, E. W., Sepehrnoori, K., and Pope, G. 2015. Mechanistic Modeling of Oil Recovery due to Low Salinity Water Injection in Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil & Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 8–11 March. SPE-172770-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/172770-MS.
Austad, T., Rezaeidoust, A. and Puntervold, T. 2010. Chemical Mechanism of Low Salinity Water Flooding in Sandstone Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129767-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129767-MS.
Carlisle, C., Al-Maraghi, E., Al-Saad, B. et al. 2014. One-Spot Pilot Results in the Sabriyah-Mauddud Carbonate Formation in Kuwait Using a Novel Surfactant Formulation. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169153-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169153-MS.
Corey, A. T., Rathjens, C. H., Henderson, J. H. and Wyllie, M. R. J. 1956. Three-phase relative permeability. J Pet Technol 8 (11): 63–65. SPE-737-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/737-G.
Deans, H. A. 1971. Method of Determining Fluid Saturations in Reservoirs. US Patent No. 3,623,842.
Deans, H. A. and Carlisle, C. T. 1986. Single-Well Tracer Tests in Complex Pore Systems. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-14886-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14886-MS.
Deans, H. A. and Carlisle, C. T. 2007. The Single-Well Chemical Tracer Test–A Method For Measuring Reservoir Fluid Saturations In Situ. In Petroleum Engineering Handbook, Reservoir Engineering and Petrophysics, Vol. V, ed. E. D. Holstein, 615–649. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Deans, H. A. and Majoros, S. 1980. The Single-Well Chemical Tracer Method for Measuring Residual Oil Saturation. US Department of Energy Report BC/20006-18, Rice University, Houston, October 1980.
Deans, H. A. and Shallenberger, L. K. 1976. Single-Well Chemical Tracer Method to Measure Connate Water Saturation. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 22–24 April. SPE-4755-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4755-MS.
Descant, F. J. 1989. Simulation of Single-Well Tracer Flow. Master’s thesis, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
De Zwart, A. H., van Batenburg, D. W., Stoll, M. et al. 2011. Numerical Interpretation of Single Well Chemical Tracer Tests for ASP Injection. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September. SPE-141557-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141557-MS.
Edwards, J. E., Ramamoorthy, R., Singh, M. et al. 2011. Single-Well In-situ Measure of Oil Saturation Remaining in Carbonate after an EOR Chemical Flood. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September. SPE-141091-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141091-MS.
Falade, G. K., Antunez, E. and Brigham, W. E. 1987. Mathematical Analysis of Single-Well Tracer Test. US Department of Energy Report SF/11564-23, Stanford University, Stanford, California, July 1987.
Ferreira, L. E. A., Descant, F. J., Delshad, M. et al. 1992. A Single-Well Tracer Test to Estimate Wettability. Presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 22–24 April. SPE-24136-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24136-MS.
Finol, J. J., Al-Harthy, S. A., Jaspers, H. F. et al. 2012. Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Pilot Test in Souther Oman. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-155403-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/155403-MS.
Hernandez, C., Chacon, L., Anselmi, L. et al. 2002. Single Well Chemical Tracer Test to Determine ASP Injection Efficiency at Lagomar VLA-6/9/21 Area, C4 Member, Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13–17 April. SPE-75122-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75122-MS.
Jerauld, G. R., Webb, K. J., Lin, C. Y. et al. 2006. Modeling Low-Salinity Waterflooding. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24–27 September. SPE-102239-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102239-MS.
Jerauld, G. R., Mohammadi, H. and Webb, K. J. 2010. Interpreting Single Well Chemical Tracer Tests. Society of Petroleum Engineers. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129724-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129724-MS.
Jin, M., Delshad, M., Dwarakanath, V. et al. 1995. Partitioning Tracer Test for Detection, Estimation, and Remediation Performance Assessment of Subsurface Non-aqueous Phase Liquids. Water Resour. Res. 31 (5): 1201–1211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/95WR00174.
Khaledialidusti, R., Kleppe, J. and Skrettingland, K. 2015. Numerical Interpretation of Single Well Chemical Tracer (SWCT) Tests to Determine Residual Oil Saturation in Snorre Reservoir. Presented at EUROPEC 2015, Madrid, Spain, 1–4 June. SPE-174378-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/174378-MS.
Luo, H., Al-Shalabi, E. W., Delshad, M. et al. 2016. A Robust Geochemical Simulator to Model Improved-Oil-Recovery Methods. SPE J. 21 (1): 55–73. SPE-173211-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173211-PA.
Mahani, H., Sorop, T. G., Ligthelm, D. et al. 2011. Analysis of Field Responses to Low-Salinity Waterflooding in Secondary and Tertiary Mode in Syria. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 23–26 May. SPE-142960-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142960-MS.
McGuire, P. L., Chatham, J. R., Paskvan, F. K. et al. 2005. Low Salinity Oil Recovery: An Exciting New EOR Opportunity for Alaska’s North Slope. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Irvine, California, 30 March–1 April. SPE-93903-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93903-MS.
Oyemade, S. N. 2010. Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flood (ASP): Single Well Chemical Tracer Tests-Design, Implementation and Performance. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil & Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 11–13 April. SPE-130042-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130042-MS
Romero, C., Agenet, N., Lesage, A. et al. 2011. Single-Well Chemical Tracer Test Experience in the Gulf of Guinea to Determine Remaining Oil Saturation. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 15–17 November. IPTC-14560-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-14560-MS.
Rotondi, M., Callegaro, C., Masserano, F. et al. 2014. Low Salinity Water Injection: eni’s Experience. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 10–13 November. SPE-171794-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171794-MS.
Seccombe, J. C., Lager, A., Webb, K. et al. 2008. Improving Waterflood Recovery: LoSalTM EOR Field Evaluation. Presented at the SPE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 20–23 April. SPE-113480-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113480-MS.
Seccombe, J. C., Lager, A., Jerauld, G. et al. 2010. Demonstration of Low-Salinity EOR at Interwell Scale, Endicott Field, Alaska. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129692-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129692-MS.
Sharma, A., Azizi-Yarand, A., Clayton, B. et al. 2013. The Design and Execution of an Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Pilot Test. SPE Res Eval & Eng 16 (4): 423–431. SPE-154318-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154318-PA.
Sharma, A., Shook, G. M. and Pope, G. A. 2014. April. Rapid Analysis of Tracers for Use in EOR Flood Optimization. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169109-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169109-MS.
Sheely, C. Q. Jr. and Baldwin, D. E. 1982. Single-Well Tracer Tests for Evaluating Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes. J Pet Technol 34 (8): 1887–1896. SPE-8838-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8838-PA.
Skrettingland, K., Holt, T., Tweheyo, M. T. et al. 2011. Snorre Low-Salinity-Water Injection–Coreflooding Experiments and Single-Well Field Pilot. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (2): 182–192. SPE-129877-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129877-PA.
Suijkerbuijk, B. M. J. M., Sorop, T. G., Parker, A. R. et al. 2014. Low Salinity Waterflooding at West-Salym: Laboratory Experiments and Field Forecasts. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169102-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169102-MS.
Tomich, J. F. and Deans, H. A. 1975. Method to Measure Fluid Drift and Immobile Phase Saturation. US Patent No. 3,902,362.
Tomich, J. F., Dalton, R. L., Deans, H. A. et al. 1973. Single-Well Tracer Method to Measure Residual Oil Saturation. J Pet Technol 25 (2): 211–218. SPE-3792-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3792-PA.
UTCHEM. 2011. A Three-Dimensional Chemical Flood Simulator, 2011_7 Technical Documentation, Vol. II, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Vledder, P., Fonseca, J. C., Wells, T. et al. 2010. Low Salinity Water Flooding: Proof Of Wettability Alteration On A Field Wide Scale. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129564-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129564-MS.
Webb, K. J., Black, C. J. J. and Al-Ajeel, H. 2004. Low Salinity Oil Recovery–Log-Inject-Log. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 17–21 April. SPE-89379-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89379-MS.
Yang, A. P. 1990. Stochastic Heterogeneity and Dispersion. PhD dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, Texas.
Yousef, A. A., Al-Saleh, S., Al-Kaabi, A. et al. 2011. Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Injection-Water Salinity and Ionic Content on Oil recovery From Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 578–593. SPE-137634-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137634-PA.
Yousef, A. A., Liu, J., Blanchard, G. W. et al. 2012. SmartWater Flooding: Industry’s First Field Test in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-159526-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159526-MS.