Experimental Laboratory Setup for Visualization and Quantification of Cement-Sheath Integrity
- Jesus De Andrade (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Sigbjorn Sangesland (Norwegian University of Science and Technology) | Ragnhild Skorpa (SINTEF Petroleum Research) | Jelena Todorovic (SINTEF Petroleum Research) | Torbjørn Vrålstad (SINTEF Petroleum Research)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 317 - 326
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Cement sheath integrity, Thermal cycling loads, Zonal isolation, X-ray Computed Tomography, Experimental laboratory set-up
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 397 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The annular cement sheath is one of the most-important well-barrier elements, both during production and after well abandonment. It is, however, well-known that repeated pressure and temperature variations in the wellbore during production and injection can have a detrimental effect on the integrity of the cement sheath.
A unique laboratory setup with downscaled samples of rock, cement, and pipe has been designed to study cement-sheath-failure mechanisms during thermal cycling, such as debonding and crack formation. With this setup, it is possible to set the cement under pressure and subsequently expose the cement to temperature cycling under pressure as well. Cement integrity before and after thermal cycling is visualized in three-dimensional by X-ray computed tomography (CT), which enables quantification of and differentiation between debonding toward the casing, debonding toward the formation, and cracks formed inside the cement sheath itself.
This paper describes in detail the development and functionality of this laboratory setup along with the experimental procedure. Several examples to demonstrate the applicability of the setup, such as tests with different types of casing surfaces and different rocks, are also shown.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Akin, S. and Kovscek, A. R. 2003. Computed Tomography in Petroleum Engineering Research. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub. 215 (1): 23–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/GSL.SP.2003.215.01.03.
Albawi, A., De Andrade, J., Torsæter, M. et al. 2014. Experimental Setup for Testing Cement sheath Integrity in Arctic Wells. Presented at the OTC Arctic Technology Conference, Houston, 10–12 February. OTC-24587-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/24587-MS.
Ansys. 2016. Workbench v14.5, http://www.ansys.com/About-ANSYS/News-Center/11-13-12-ANSYS-14-5-Bolsters-Product-Performancev (accessed 20 July 2016).
API SPEC 10A Specification for Cements and Materials for Well Cementing, 24th edition. 2010. Washington, DC: API.
Bearden, W. G., Spurlock, J. W., and Howard, G. C. 1965. Control and Prevention of Inter-Zonal Flow. J Pet Technol 17 (5): 579–584. SPE-903-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/903-PA.
Bois, A.-P., Garnier, A., Galdiolo, G. et al. 2012. Use of a Mechanistic Model to Forecast Cement-Sheath Integrity. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (2): 303–314. SPE-139668-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139668-PA.
Bois, A.-P., Garnier, A., Rodot, F. et al. 2011. How to Prevent Loss of Zonal Isolation Through a Comprehensive Analysis of Micro-annulus Formation. SPE Drill & Compl 26 (1): 13–31. SPE-124719-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124719-PA.
Boukhelifa, L., Moroni, N., James, S. et al. 2005. Evaluation of Cement Systems for Oil and Gas Well Zonal Isolation in a Full-Scale Annular Geometry. SPE Drill & Compl 20 (1): 44–53. SPE-87195-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87195-PA.
Bourgoyne, A. T., Scott, S. L., and Regg, J. B. 1999. Sustained Casing Pressure in Offshore Producing Wells. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 3–6 May. OTC-11029-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/11029-MS.
Carpenter, R. B., Brady, J. L., and Blount, C. G. 1992. Effects of Temperature and Cement Admixes on Bond Strength. J Pet Technol 44 (8): 880–885. SPE-22063-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22063-PA.
Carter, L. G. and Evans, G. W. 1964. A Study of Cement-Pipe Bonding. J Pet Technol 16 (2): 157–160. SPE-764-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/764-PA.
De Andrade, J., Torsæter, M., Todorovic, J. et al. 2014. Influence of Casing Centralization on Cement Sheath Integrity During Thermal Cycling. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 4–6 March. SPE-168012-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168012-MS.
Environmental Stress Systems, Inc. (ESS). 2015. Cryogenically Cooled Systems, http://www.essproducts.com/t-series (accessed 24 February 2015).
Evans, G. W. and Carter, L. G. 1962. Bonding Studies of Cementing Compositions to Pipe and Formation. API-62-072.
FEI Group. 2013. AVIZO 3D Analysis Software, http://www.fei.com/software/avizo3d/ (accessed 20 March 2015).
Garnier, A., Saint-Marc, J., Bois, A.-P. et al. 2010. An Innovative Methodology for Designing Cement-Sheath Integrity Exposed to Steam Stimulation. SPE Drill & Compl 25 (1): 58–69. SPE-117709-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117709-PA.
Goodwin, K. J. and Crook, R. J. 1992. Cement Sheath Stress Failure. SPE Drill Eng 7 (4): 291–296. SPE-20453-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20453-PA.
Jackson, P. B. and Murphey, C. E. 1993. Effect of Casing Pressure on Gas Flow Through a Sheath of Set Cement. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, 23–25 February. SPE-25698-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25698-MS.
Lavrov, A., Todorovic, J., and Torsæter, M. 2015. Numerical Study of Tensile Thermal Stresses on a Casing-Cement-Rock System with Heterogeneities. Oral presentation of ARMA-2015-110 presented at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July.
Lavrov, A., Torsæter, M., Albawi, A. et al. 2014. Near-Well Integrity and Thermal Effects: A Computational Road from Laboratory to Field Scale. Oral presentation of ARMA-2014-7109 given at the 48th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1–4 June.
Nelson, E. B. and Guillot, D. ed. 2006. Well Cementing, second edition. Houston: Schlumberger.
Opedal, N., Todorovic, J., Torsæter, M. et al. 2014. Experimental Study on the Cement-Formation Bonding. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, 26–28 February. SPE-168138-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168138-MS.
Opedal, N., Todorovic, J., Torsæter, M. et al. 2015. Filter Cake Behavior during Leakage at the Cement-Rock Interface in Wellbores. Oral presentation of ARMA-2015-341 given at the 49th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 28 June–1 July.
Parcevaux, P. A. and Sault, P. H. 1984. Cement Shrinkage and Elasticity: A New Approach for a Good Zonal Isolation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 16–19 September. SPE-13176-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13176-MS.
Patil, R., Garnier, A., Galdiolo, G. et al. 2010. Designing and Testing Cement Systems for SAGD Application. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-134169-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134169-MS.
Roy, P., Walsh, S. D. C., Morris, J. P. et al. 2016. Studying the Impact of Thermal Cycling on Wellbore Integrity During CO2 Injection. Oral presentation of ARMA-2016-668 given at the 50th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Houston, 26–29 June.
Saint-Marc, J., Garnier, A., and Bois, A.-P. 2008. Initial State of Stress: The Key to Achieving Long-Term Cement-Sheath Integrity. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE-116651-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116651-MS.
Shadravan, A., Schubert, J., Amani, M. et al. 2015. Using Fatigue-Failure Envelope for Cement-Sheath-Integrity Evaluation. SPE Drill & Compl 30 (1): 68–75. SPE-168321-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168321-PA.
Skorpa, R. and Vrålstad, T. 2016. Visualization and Quantification of Fluid Flow through Degraded Cement Sheaths. Presented at the SPE Bergen One Day Seminar, Bergen, Norway, 20 April. SPE-180019-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/180019-MS.
Todorovic, J., Gawel, K., Lavrov, A. et al. 2016. Integrity of Downscaled Well Models Subject to Cooling. Presented at the SPE Bergen One Day Seminar, Bergen, Norway, 20 April. SPE-180052-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/180052-MS.
Vignes, B. and Aadnoy, B. S. 2008. Well-Integrity Issues Offshore Norway. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Orlando, Florida, 4–6 March. SPE-112535-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112535-MS.
Vrålstad, T., Skorpa, R., Opedal, N. et al. 2015. Effect of Thermal Cycling on Cement Sheath Integrity: Realistic Experimental Tests and Simulation of Resulting Leakages. Presented at the SPE Thermal Well Integrity and Design Symposium, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 23–25 November. SPE-178467-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/178467-MS.