The Effect of Clay Type on Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Performance
- Taniya Kar (Texas A&M University) | Albina Mukhametshina (Texas A&M University) | Yasin Unal (Texas A&M University) | Berna Hascakir (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- December 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 412 - 423
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Asphaltene-Clay Interaction, Kaolinite, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, Illite, Permeability Reduction
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 354 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 5.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This study investigates the effect of clay type on the performance variations of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD). Two SAGD experiments at identical experimental conditions were conducted. The reservoir rock for the first experiment (SAGD1) is prepared with a sand (85 wt%) and kaolinite (15 wt%) mixture, and the second experiment (SAGD2) is prepared with a sand (85 wt%), kaolinite (13.5 wt%), and illite (1.5 wt%) mixture. The effectiveness of the steam-chamber growth did not change with the clay type; however, 15-wt% reduction in oil recovery was observed for SAGD2. The possible reasons were investigated with the analyses on the produced-water, the produced-oil, and the spent-rock samples. Contact-angle, particle-size, zeta-potential, and interfacial-tension measurements were carried out on the samples. The mineralogical changes on spent-rock samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) analyses. The contact-angle measurements on the spent-rock samples displayed the higher oil-wetness for SAGD2 than SAGD1. However, the water-wetness of illite is known to be higher than that of kaolinite. This unexpected result is explained by the interaction of illite and the asphaltenes from SAGD2. The particle-size measurements, along with the SEM images, on post-mortem samples reveal that illite containing clay exhibits cementation behaviour and, hence, reduces the permeability of the rock. According to the experimental results, we developed hypotheses to understand the bitumen/illite and bitumen/kaolinite interactions for SAGD. Because of the high water-wetness of illite, illite particles first interact with water. This interaction results in cementation and forms illite lumps with sand. Then, illite lumps continue to interact more vigorously with the polar molecules (water, asphaltenes, and resins). Clay migration and production occur in both clay types; however, while kaolinite is produced in the water phase, illite-containing clay as a result of its interaction with asphaltenes is produced in the oil phase.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Aboulkas, A. and El Harfi, K. 2008. Study of the Kinetics and Mechanisms of Thermal Decomposition of Moroccan Tarfaya Oil Shale and its Kerogen. Oil Shale 25 (4): 426–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/oil.2008.4.04.
Akbarzadeh, K., Hammami, A., Kharrat, A. et al. 2007. Asphaltenes—Problematic but Rich in Potential. Oilfield Review 19 (2): 22–43.
Alotaibi, M. B., Azmy, R. M., and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2010. Wettability Studies Using Low-Salinity Water in Sandstone Reservoirs. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, 3–6 May. OTC-20718-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/20718-MS.
Alotaibi, M. B. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Electrokinetics of Limestone Particles and Crude-Oil Droplets in Saline Solutions. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (05): 604–611. SPE-151577-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151577-PA.
Amyx, J. W., Bass, D. M. Jr., and Whiting, R. L. 1960. Petroleum Reservoir Engineering, Physical Properties, 103–104. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Anderson, W. G. 1986. Wettability Literature Survey–Part 1: Rock/Oil/Brine Interactions and the Effects of Core Handling on Wettability. J Pet Technol 38 (10): 1125–1144. SPE-13932-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13932-PA.
ASTM D2007-11: Standard Test Method for Characteristic Groups in Rubber Extender and Processing Oils and Other Petroleum-Derived Oils by the Clay-Gel Absorption Chromatographic Method. 2011. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/D2007-11.
Bantignies, J.-L., Moulin, C. C. D., and Dexpert, H. 1997. Wettability Contrasts in Kaolinite and Illite Clays: Characterization by Infrared and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies. Journal de Physique IV 7 (C2): C2-867–C2-869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/jp4:1997261.
Bayliss, P. and Levinson, A. A. 1976. Mineralogical Review of the Alberta Oil Sand Deposits (Lower Cretaceous, Mannville Group). Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology 24 (2): 211–224.
Butler, R. M. 1994. Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Concept, Development, Performance and Future. J Can Petrol Technol 33 (2): 44–50. PETSOC-94-02-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-02-05.
Carroll, D. and Starkey, H. C. 1971. Reactivity of Clay Minerals With Acids and Alkalies. Clays and Clay Minerals 19 (5): 321–333. http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70010370.
Chen, K., Liu, H., Guo, A. et al. 2012. Study of the Thermal Performance and Interaction of Petroleum Residue Fractions During the Coking Process. Energy Fuels 26 (10): 6343–6351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef301378g.
Clark, S. P. Jr. ed. 1966. Handbook of Physical Constants, revised edition. Boulder, Colorado: The Geological Society of America.
Clementz, D. M. 1976. Interaction of Petroleum Heavy Ends With Montmorillonite. Clays and Clay Minerals 24 (6): 312–319.
Crocker, M. E., Donaldson, E. C., and Marchin, L. M. 1983. Comparison and Analysis of Reservoir Rocks and Related Clays. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, California, USA, 5–8 October. SPE-11973-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11973-MS.
Dubey, S. T. and Waxman, M. H. 1991. Asphaltene Adsorption and Desorption From Mineral Surfaces. SPE Res Eng 6 (3): 389–395. SPE-18462-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18462-PA.
Ehrlich, R. 1970. The Effect of Temperature on Water-Oil Imbibition Relative Permeability. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 5–6 November. SPE-3214-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3214-MS.
Fair, G. M., Geyer, J. C., and Okun, D. A. 1968. Water and Wastewater Engineering, Vol. 2. New York, New York: Wiley.
Goual, L. and Firoozabadi, A. 2002. Measuring Asphaltenes and Resins, and Dipole Moment in Petroleum Fluids. AIChE Journal 48 (11): 2646–2663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690481124.
Grate, J. W., Dehoff, K. J., Warner, M. G. et al. 2012. Correlation of Oil-Water and Air-Water Contact Angles of Diverse Silanized Surfaces and Relationship to Fluid Interfacial Tensions. Langmuir 28 (18): 7182–7188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la204322k.
Green, D. W. and Willhite, G. P. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery, SPE Textbook Series, Vol. 6. Richardson, Texas: Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Grim, R. F. 1968. Clay Mineralogy. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc.
Hamm, R. A. and Ong, T. S. 1995. Enhanced Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: A New Horizontal Well Recovery Process for Peace River, Canada. J Can Pet Technol 34 (4): 33–40. PETSOC-95-04-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95-04-03.
Hematfar, V., Maini, B. B., and Chen, Z. J. 2013. Influence of Clay Minerals and Water Film Properties on In-Situ Adsorption of Asphaltene. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference–Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 11–13 June. SPE-165506-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165506-MS.
Hughes, C. R., Davey, R. C., and Curtis, C. D. 1989. Chemical Reactivity of Some Reservoir Illites: Implications for Petroleum Production. Clay Minerals 24 (2): 445–458.
Hussain, S. A., Demirci, S., and Özbayoglu, G. 1996. Zeta Potential Measurements on Three Clays from Turkey and Effects of Clays on Coal Flotation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 184 (2): 535–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.1996.0649.
Jiang, T., Hirasaki, G. J., and Miller, C. A. 2010. Characterization of Kaolinite ζ Potential for Interpretation of Wettability Alteration in Diluted Bitumen Emulsion Separation. Energy Fuels 24 (4): 2350-2360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef900999h.
Jones, F., Tran, H., Lindberg, D. et al. 2013 Thermal Stability of Zinc Compounds. Energy Fuels 27 (10): 5663–5669. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef400505u.
Kaminsky, H. A. W., Etsell, T. H., Ivey, D. G. et al. 2009. Distribution of Clay Minerals in the Process Streams Produced by the Extraction of Bitumen from Athabasca Oil Sands. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 87 (1): 85–93. http://dx.doi.org/cjce.20133.
Kar, T., Williamson, M., and Hascakir, B. 2014. The Role of Asphaltenes in Emulsions Formation for Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and Expanding Solvent - SAGD (ES-SAGD). Presented at the SPE Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Conference: Latin America, Medellin, Colombia, 24–26 September. SPE-171076-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171076-MS.
Kar, T. and Hascakir, B. 2015. The Role of Resins, Asphaltenes, and Water in Water-Oil Emulsion Breaking with Microwave Heating. Energy Fuels 29 (6): 3684–3690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.5b00662.
Kar, T., Yeoh, J. J., Ovalles, C. et al. 2015. The Impact of Asphaltene Precipitation and Clay Migration on Wettability Alteration for Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) and Expanding Solvent-SAGD (ES-SAGD). Presented at the SPE Canada Heavy Oil Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 9–11 June. SPE-174439-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/174439-MS.
Kaya, A., Oren, A. H., and Yukselen, Y. 2003. Settling Behavior and Zeta Potential of Kaolinite in Aqueous Media. Presented at the International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, 25–30 May. ISOPE-I-03-141.
Keenan, J. H. and Keyes, F. G. 1936. Thermodynamic Properties of Steam. New York, New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Kokal, S. L. and Sayegh, S. G. 1995. Asphaltenes: The Cholesterol of Petroleum. Presented at the Middle East Oil Show, Bahrain, 11–14 March. SPE-29787-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29787-MS.
Lemmens, H., Goergen, E., Skinner, K. et al. 2013. From SEM Maps and EDS Maps to Numbers in Unconventional Reservoirs. Presented at the Unconventional Resources Technology Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA, 12–14 August. SPE-168789-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168789-MS.
Leontaritis, K. J., Amaefule, J. O., Charles, R. E. 1994. A Systematic Approach for the Prevention and Treatment of Formation Damage Caused by Asphaltene Deposition. SPE Prod & Fac 9 (3): 157–164. SPE-23810-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23910-PA.
Li, X. G., Lv, Y., Ma, B. G. et al. 2013. Decomposition Kinetic Characteristics of Calcium Carbonate Containing Organic Acids by TGA. Arabian Journal of Chemistry (in press, posted 21 September 2013). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2013.09.026.
Liu, J., Zhou, Z., Xu, Z. et al. 2002. Bitumen-Clay Interactions in Aqueous Media Studied by Zeta Potential Distribution Measurement. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 252 (2): 409–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jcis.2002.8471.
Liu, J., Xu, Z., and Masliyah, J. 2005. Interaction Forces in Bitumen Extraction from Oil Sands. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 287 (2): 507–520. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2005.02.037.
Liu, D., Yuan, P., Liu, H. et al. 2013. High-Pressure Adsorption of Methane on Montmorillonite, Kaolinite and Illite. Applied Clay Science 85: 25–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2013.09.009.
Mercier, P. H. J., Le Page, Y., Tu, Y. et al. 2008. Powder X-ray Diffraction Determination of Phyllosilicate Mass and Area Versus Particle Thickness Distributions for Clays from the Athabasca Oil Sands. Petroleum Science and Technology 26 (3): 307–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460600806069.
Mojelsky, T. W., Ignasiak, T. M., Frakman, Z. et al. 1992. Structural Features of Alberta Oil Sand Bitumen and Heavy Oil Asphaltenes. Energy Fuels 6 (1): 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef00031a013.
Morrow, A. W., Mukhametshina, A., Aleksandrov, D. et al. 2014. Environmental Impact of Bitumen Extraction with Thermal Recovery. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference–Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10–12 June. SPE-170066-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170066-MS.
Mukhametshina, A. and Hascakir, B. 2014. Bitumen Extraction by Expanding Solvent-Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (ES-SAGD) With Asphaltene Solvents and Non-Solvents. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference–Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10–12 June. SPE-170013-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170013-MS.
Mukhametshina, A., Morrow, A. W., Aleksandrov, D. et al. 2014. Evaluation of Four Thermal Recovery Methods for Bitumen Extraction. Presented at the SPE Western North America and Rock Mountain Joint Regional Meeting, Denver, Colorado, USA, 16–18 April. SPE-169543-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169543-MS.
Mukhametshina, A., Kar, T., and Hascakir, B. 2015. Asphaltene Precipitation During Bitumen Extraction With Expanding-Solvent Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Effects on Pore-Scale Displacement. SPE J. SPE-170013-PA. (in press, posted 28 July 2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170013-PA.
Mullins, O. C., Sheu, E. Y., Hammami, A. et al. 2007. Asphaltenes, Heavy Oils, and Petroleomics. New York, New York: Springer-Verlag.
Nasralla, R. A. and Nasr-El-Din, H. A. 2011. Impact of Electrical Surface Charges and Cation Exchange on Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Water. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 20–22 September. SPE-147937-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147937-MS.
Pang, Z.-X., Liu, H.-Q., Liu, X.-L. 2010. Characteristics of Formation Damage and Variations of Reservoir Properties During Steam Injection in Heavy Oil Reservoir. Petroleum Science and Technology 28 (5): 477–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460902780335.
Parra-Barraza, H., Hernández-Montiel, D., Lizardi, J. et al. 2003. The Zeta Potential and Surface Properties of Asphaltenes Obtained with Different Crude Oil/n-heptane Proportions. Fuel 82 (8): 869–874. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0016-2361(03)00002-4.
Poston, S. W., Ysrael, S., Hossain, A. K. M. S. et al. 1970. The Effect of Temperature on Irreducible Water Saturation and Relative Permeability of Unconsolidated Sands. SPE J. 10 (2): 171–180. SPE-1897-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1897-PA.
Prats, M. 1982. Thermal Recovery, 283. New York: H.L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME.
Quan, X., Jiazhong, W., Jishun, Q. et al. 2012. Investigation of Electrical Surface Charges and Wettability Alteration by Ions Matching Waterflooding. Presented at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Aberdeen, Scotland, 27–30 August.
Shkalikov, N. V, Vasil’ev, S. G., and Skirda, V. K. 2010. Peculiarities of Asphaltene Precipitation in n-Alkane–Oil Systems. Colloid Journal 72 (1): 133–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1061933X1001014X.
Shuhua, G. and Jialin, Q. 1997. Micro-Structure Model of Some Chinese Oil Sand. Petroleum Science and Technology 15 (9–10): 857–872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916469708949693.
Speight, J. G. 1999. The Chemistry and Technology of Petroleum, third edition. New York, New York: Marcel Dekker.
Tchobanoglous, G. and Burton, F. L. 1991. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, and Reuse, third edition. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Unal, Y., Kar, T., Mukhametshina, A. et al. 2015. The Impact of Clay Type on the Asphaltene Deposition During Bitumen Extraction With Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 13–15 April. SPE-173795-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173795-MS.
Wang, S., Liu, Q., Tan, X. et al. 2013. Study of Asphaltene Adsorption on Kaolinite by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy. Energy Fuels 27 (5): 2465–2473. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef4001314.
Yukselen, Y. and Kaya, A. 2003. Zeta Potential of Kaolinite in the Presence of Alkali, Alkaline Earth and Hydrolyzable Metal Ions. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 145 (1-4): 155–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1023684213383.
Zhao, B., Becerra, M., and Shaw, J. M. 2009. On Asphaltene and Resin Association in Athabasca Bitumen and Maya Crude Oil. Energy Fuels 23 (9): 4431–4437. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef900309.