Use of a CO2-Hybrid Fracturing Design To Enhance Production From Unpropped-Fracture Networks
- Lionel H. Ribeiro (Statoil) | Huina Li (Statoil) | Jason E. Bryant (Statoil)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- February 2017
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 28 - 40
- 2017.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Fluid, Hydraulic, Fracturing, CO2, Shales
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 890 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
This paper introduces an innovative CO2-hybrid-fracturing-fluid design that intends to improve production from ultratight reservoirs and reduces freshwater usage. The design consists of injecting pure CO2 as the pad fluid to generate a complex fracture network and injecting a gelled slurry (water- or foam-based) to generate near-wellbore conductivity. The motivation behind this design is that while current aqueous fluids provide sufficient primary hydraulic-fracture conductivity back to the wellbore, they understimulate the reservoir and leave behind damaged stimulated regions deeper in the fracture network. Much of that (unpropped) stimulated area is ineffective for production because of interfacial-tension effects, fines generation, and/or polymer damage. We present simulation work that demonstrates how CO2, with its low viscosity, can extend the bottomhole treating pressure deeper into the reservoir and generate a larger producible surface area. We also present experimental evidence that CO2 leaves behind higher unpropped-fracture conductivities than slickwater. This paper does not address the many operational and logistical challenges of using CO2 as a fracturing fluid. Rather, it intends to demonstrate the production-uplift potential of the proposed design, which seems particularly attractive in reservoirs capable of sustaining production from unpropped fractures (e.g., reservoirs with low horizontal-stress anisotropy, high Young’s modulus, and a pervasive set of natural fractures).
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Adekunle, O. O. and Hoffman, B. T. 2014. Minimum Miscibility Pressure Studies in the Bakken. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 12–16 April. SPE-169077-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169077-MS.
Asgian, M. 1989. A Numerical Model of Fluid-Flow in Deformable Naturally Fractured Rock Masses. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 26 (3–4): 317–328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0148-9062(89)91980-3.
Basquet, R., Jeannin, L., Lange, A. et al. 2004. Gas-Flow Simulation in Discrete Fracture-Network Models. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (5): 378–384. SPE-88985-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88985-PA.
Bertoncello, A., Wallace, J., Blyton, C. et al. 2014. Imbibition and Water Blockage in Unconventional Reservoirs: Well-Management Implications During Flowback and Early Production. SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (4): 497–506. SPE-167698-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167698-PA.
Bleakley, W. B. 1980. Mitchell Energy Foam Fracs Tight Gas Zones. Pet. Eng. Intern (December): 24–28.
Bryant, J. E., Ivarrud, E., Ribeiro, L. H. et al. 2015. Applications of Ultra-Low Viscosity Fluids to Stimulate Ultra-Tight Hydrocarbon-Bearing Formations. US Patent Application Number US20150345268 A1.
Burke, L. H., Nevison, G. W., and Peters W. E. 2011. Improved Unconventional Gas Recovery With Energized Fracturing Fluids: Montney Example. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Colombus, Ohio, USA, 17–19 August. SPE-149344-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149344-MS.
Carter, E. D. 1957. Optimum Fluid Characteristics for Fracture Extension. In Drilling and Production Practices, API-57-261. Tulsa: American Petroleum Institutes.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2010. CMG-GEM User Manual. Calgary: Computer Modelling Group.
Crouch, S. L. and Starfield, A. M. 1983. Boundary Element Methods in Solid Mechanics–With Applications in Rock Mechanics and Geological Engineering. London: George Allen and Unwin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nme.1620200617.
Economides, M. J. and Nolte, K. G. 2000. Reservoir Stimulation. New York, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Enick, R. M., Olsen, D. K., Ammer, J. R. et al. 2012. Mobility and Conformance Control for CO2 EOR via Thickeners, Foams, and Gels–A Literature Review of 40 Years of Research and Pilot Tests. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-154122-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154122-MS.
Fredd, C. N., McConnell, S. B., Boney, C. J. et al. 2001. Experimental Study of Fracture Conductivity for Water-Fracturing and Conventional Fracturing Applications. SPE J. 6 (3): 288–298. SPE-74138-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74138-PA.
Gabris, S. J. and Taylor J. L. 1986. The Utility of CO2 as an Energizing Component for Fracturing Fluids. SPE Prod Eng 1 (5): 351–358. SPE-13794-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13794-PA.
Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) and Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC). 2015. FracFocus Chemical Disclosure Registry, www.fracfocusdata.org.
Grundmann, S. R. and Lord, D. L. 1983. Foam Stimulation. J Pet Techol 35 (3): 597–602. SPE-9754-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9754-PA.
Gupta, D. V. S. 2011. Unconventional Fracturing Fluids: What, Where and Why. Technical Workshops for the Hydraulic Fracturing Study, US Environmental Protection Agency, presented at Arlington, VA (February 2011). http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/unconventionalfracturingfluids-what-where-why.pdf.
Gupta, D. V. S. and Bobier, D. M. 1998. The History and Success of Liquid CO2 and CO2/N2 Fracturing System. Presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 15–18 March. SPE-40016-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/40016-MS.
Harris, P. C., Klebenow, D. E., and Kundert, P. D. 1991. Constant-Internal-Phase Design Improves Stimulation Results. SPE Prod Eng 6 (1): 15–19. SPE-17532-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17532-PA.
Hurst, R. E. 1972. Use of Liquified Gases as Fracture Fluids for Dry Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the Fall Meeting of the Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–11 October. SPE-4116-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4116-MS.
Kurtoglu, B. 2013. Integrated Reservoir Characterization and Modeling in Support of Enhanced Oil Recovery for Bakken. PhD Dissertation, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Lillies, A. T. and King S. R. 1982. Sand Fracturing with Liquid Carbon Dioxide. Presented at the SPE Production Technology Symposium, Hobbs, New Mexico, 8–9 November. SPE-11341-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11341-MS.
Manchanda, R. and Sharma, M. M. 2013. Time-Delayed Fracturing: A New Strategy in Multi-Stage, Multi-Well Pad Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166489-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166489-MS.
Mayerhofer, M. J., Lolon, E., Warpinski, N. R. et al. 2008. What is Stimulated Rock Volume? Presented at the SPE Shale Gas Production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, USA, 16–18 November. SPE-119890-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119890-MS.
Mazza, R. L. 2001. Liquid-Free CO2/Sand Stimulations: An Overlooked Technology–Production Update. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Canton, Ohio, USA, 17–19 October. SPE-72383-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/72383-MS.
McClure, M. W. 2012. Modeling and Characterization of Hydraulic Stimulation and Induced Seismicity in Geothermal and Shale Gas Reservoirs. PhD Dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
McClure, M. W. 2014. The Potential Effect of Network Complexity on Recovery of Injected Fluid Following Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the SPE Unconventional Resources Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 1–3 April. SPE-168991-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168991-MS.
McClure, M. W. and Horne, R. N. 2013. Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation: Coupling Flow and Geomechanics, Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00383-2.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). 2015. Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems, webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/fluid.
Palisch, T. T., Vincent, M. C., and Handren, P. J. 2010. Slickwater Fracturing: Food for Thought. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (3): 327–344. SPE-115766-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115766-PA.
Patel, P. S., Robart, C. J., Ruegamer. M. et al. 2014. Analysis of US Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid System and Proppant Trends. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 4–6 February. SPE-168645-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168645-MS.
Proppant Consortium, Reports on the Investigation of the Effects of Fracturing Fluids Upon the Conductivity of Proppants, Proppant Flowback, and Fluid Leak-off, 1986–2014. Stim-Lab Inc., Duncan, Oklahoma.
Reynolds, M. M., Bachman, R. C., and Peters, W. E. 2014. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Various Fracture Fluid Systems Used in Multi-Stage Fractured Horizontal Wells: Montney Formation, Unconventional Gas. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 4–6 February. SPE-168632-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168632-MS.
Ribeiro, L. H. 2013. Design of Energized Hydraulic Fractures. PhD Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Ribeiro, L. H. and Sharma, M. M. 2012. Multiphase Fluid-Loss Properties and Return Permeability of Energized Fracturing Fluids. SPE Prod & Oper 27 (3): 265–277. SPE-139622-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139622-PA.
Ribeiro, L. H. and Sharma, M. M. 2013. Fluid Selection for Energized Fracture Treatments. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 4–6 February. SPE-163867-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163867-MS.
Sinal, M. L. and Lancaster, G. 1987. Liquid CO2 Fracturing: Advantages and Limitations. J Can Pet Technol 26 (5): 26–30. PETSOC-87-05-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87-05-01.
Suarez-Rivera, R., Behrmann, L. A., Green, S. et al. 2013. Defining Three Regions of Hydraulic Fracture Connectivity, in Unconventional Reservoirs, Help Designing Completions with Improved Long-term Productivity. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166505-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166505-MS.
Tudor, R., Vozniak, C., Peters, W. et al. 1994. Technical Advances in Liquid CO2 Fracturing. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, 12–15 June. PETSOC-94-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-36.
Ward, V. L. 1986. N2 and CO2 in the Oil Field: Stimulation and Completion Applications (includes associated paper 16050). SPE Prod Eng 1 (4): 275–278. SPE-12594-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12594-PA.
Warren, J. E. and Root, P. J. 1963. The Behavior of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. SPE J. 3 (3): 245–255. SPE-426-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/426-PA.
Wendorff, C. L. and Ainley, B. R. 1981. Massive Hydraulic Fracturing of High-Temperature Wells with Stable Frac Foams. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 4–7 October. SPE-10257-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10257-MS.