Measurement and Correlation of Viscosity and Density for Compressed Athabasca Bitumen at Temperatures Up to 200ºC
- Mohammad Kariznovi (University of Calgary) | Hossein Nourozieh (University of Calgary) | Jalal Abedi (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- November 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 330 - 338
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- correlation, viscosity, experiment, density, Athabasca bitumen
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 645 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The heavy-oil- and bitumen-recovery processes mainly intend to reduce the oil viscosity at the reservoir; therefore, the production and pipeline transportation of such viscous fluids require specific data on the viscosity and density of raw bitumen. In this study, the thermophysical properties of Athabasca bitumen were reported over a wide range of temperatures and pressures applicable for both in-situ-recovery methods and pipeline transportation of oil. The measurements were taken with our designed phase-behaviour experimental apparatus, capturing the density and viscosity of Athabasca bitumen accurately at temperatures varying from ambient temperature up to 200C and at pressures up to 10 MPa. The experimental density data for bitumen were correlated within 60.7 kg/m3 with a newly developed algorithm to obtain the coefficients of correlation equations, considering the influence of pressure and temperature on the density. The viscosity data are correlated reasonably (within 69%) over the studied conditions with two correlations, which include two adjustable parameters each.
|File Size||949 KB||Number of Pages||9|
ASTM D2007-03, Standard Test Method for Characteristic Groups in Rubber Extender and Processing Oils and Other Petroleum-Derived Oils by the Clay-Gel Absorption Chromatographic Method. 2003. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
ASTM D7169-05, Standard Test Method for Boiling Point Distribution of Samples with Residues Such as Crude Oils and Atmospheric and Vacuum Residues by High Temperature Gas Chromatography. 2005. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International.
Badamchi-Zadeh, A., Yarranton, H.W., Svrcek, W.Y. et al. 2009a. Phase Behaviour and Physical Property Measurement for VAPEX Solvents: Part I. Propane and Athabasca Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 48 (1): 54–61. PETSOC-09-01-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-01-54.
Badamchi-Zadeh, A., Yarranton, H.W., Maini, B.B. et al. 2009b. Phase Behaviour and Physical Property Measurements for VAPEX Solvents: Part II. Propane, Carbon Dioxide and Athabasca Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 48 (3): 57–65. PETSOC-09-03-57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-03-57.
Bazyleva, A.B., Hasan, M.A., Fulem, M. et al. 2010. Bitumen and Heavy Oil Rheological Properties: Reconciliation with Viscosity Measurements. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 55 (3): 1389–1397. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je900562u.
Behzadfar, E. and Hatzikiriakos, S.G. 2013. Viscoelastic Properties and Constitutive Modelling of Bitumen. Fuel 108: 391–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2012.12.035.
Cryette, W.R. 1994. Model 5009 Wide Range Cryoscope – Instruction Manual, first edition, 4-5. Precision Systems, Inc., Natick, MA.
Eastick, R. and Mehrotra, A. 1990. Viscosity Data and Correlation for Mixtures of Bitumen Fractions. Fuel Processing Technology 26 (1): 25–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3820(90)90021-J.
Eyring, H. and Hirchfelder J. 1937. The Theory of Liquid State. Journal of Physical Chemistry 41: 249–257.
Gray, M. 1994. Upgrading Petroleum Residues and Heavy Oils, first edition. London: CRC Press.
Guan, J., Kariznovi, M., Nourozieh, H. et al. 2013. Density and Viscosity for Mixtures of Athabasca Bitumen and Aromatic Solvents. Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data 58 (3): 611–624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je3010722.
Kariznovi, M. 2013. Phase Behaviour Study and Physical Properties Measurement for Athabasca Bitumen / Solvent Systems Applicable for Thermal and Hybrid Solvent Recovery Processes. PhD thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (October 2013)
Kariznovi, M., Nourozieh, H., and Abedi, J. 2011. Experimental Apparatus for Phase Behavior Study of Solvent–Bitumen Systems: A Critical Review and Design of a New Apparatus. Fuel 90 (2): 536–546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2010.10.019.
Kariznovi, M., Nourozieh, H., Guan, J. et al. 2013. Measurement and Modeling of Density and Viscosity for Mixtures of Athabasca Bitumen and Heavy n-Alkane. Fuel 112: 83–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2013.04.071.
Khan, M.A.B., Mehrotra, A.K., and Svrcek, W.Y. 1984. Viscosity Models for Gas-Free Athabasca Bitumen. J Can Pet Technol 23 (3): 47–53. PETSOC-84-03-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84-03-05.
Lemmon, E.W., McLinden, M.O., and Friend, D.G. 2014. Thermophysical Properties of Fluid Systems. In NIST Chemistry WebBook: NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69, ed. P.J. Linstrom and W.G. Mallard. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), http://webbook.nist.gov/chemistry/fluid/ (accessed 01 August 2013).
Luo, P., Yang, C., and Gu, Y. 2007. Enhanced Solvent Dissolution into In-Situ Upgraded Heavy Oil Under Different Pressures. Fluid Phase Equilibria 252 (1-2): 143–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2007.01.005.
Matlab 7.2, The MathWorks Inc., 2006. Natick, MA.
Mehrotra, A. 1991. A Generalized Viscosity Equation for Pure Heavy Hydrocarbons. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 30 (2): 420–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie00050a021.
Mehrotra, A. 1992a. A Generalized Viscosity Equation for Liquid Hydrocarbons: Application to Oil-Sand. Fluid Phase Equilibria 75: 257–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(92)87022-F.
Mehrotra, A. 1992b. A Model for the Viscosity of bitumen/ bitumen fractions-diluent blends. J Can Pet Technol 31 (9): 28–32. PETSOC-92-09-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92-09-03.
Mehrotra, A. 1992c. Mixing Rules for Predicting the Viscosity of Bitumens Saturated with Pure Gases. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 70 (1): 165–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450700124.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1984. Measurement and Correlation of Viscosity, Density and Gas Solubility for Marguerite Lake Bitumen Saturated with Carbon Dioxide. AOSTRA Journal of Research 1 (1): 51–62.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1985a. Viscosity, Density and Gas Solubility Data for Oil Sand Bitumens. Part I: Athabasca Bitumen Saturated with CO and C2H6. AOSTRA Journal of Research 1 (4): 263–268.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1985b Viscosity, Density and Gas Solubility Data for Oil Sand Bitumens. Part II: Peace River Bitumen Saturated with N2, CO, CH4, CO2 and C2H6. AOSTRA Journal of Research 1 (4): 269–279.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1985c. Viscosity, Density and Gas Solubility Data for Oil Sand Bitumens. Part III: Wabasca Bitumen Saturated with N2, CO, CH4, CO2 and C2H6. AOSTRA Journal of Research 2 (2): 83–93.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1986. Viscosity of Compressed Athabasca Bitumen. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 64 (5): 844–847. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450640520.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1987a. Viscosity of Compressed Cold Lake Bitumen. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 65 (4): 672–675. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450650423.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1987b. Corresponding States Method for Calculating Bitumen Viscosity. J Can Pet Technol 26 (5): 60–66. PETSOC-87-05-06. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87-05-06.
Mehrotra, A. and Svrcek, W. 1988. Properties of Cold Lake Bitumen Saturated with Pure Gases and Gas Mixtures. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 66 (4): 656–665. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450660419.
Mehrotra, A.K., Eastick, R.R., and Svrcek, W.Y. 1989. Viscosity of Cold Lake Bitumen and its Fractions. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 67 (6): 1004–1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450670620.
Miadonye, A., Latour, N., and Puttagunta, V.R. 2000. A Correlation for Viscosity and Solvent Mass Fraction of Bitumen-Diluent Mixtures. Petroleum Science and Technology 18 (1-2): 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460008949828.
Miadonye, A., Doyle, N., Britten, A. et al. 2001. Modelling Viscosity and Mass Fraction of Bitumen-Diluent Mixtures. J Can Pet Technol 40 (7): 52–57. PETSOC-01-07-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/01-07-04.
Miadonye, A., Singh, B., and Puttagunta, V.R. 1994. Modelling the Viscosity-Temperature Relationship of Alberta Bitumen. Fuel Science & Technology International 12 (2): 335–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08843759408916182.
Miadonye, A., Singh, B., and Puttagunta, V.R. 1995. Viscosity Estimation for Bitumen-Diluent Mixtures. Fuel Science & Technology International 13 (6): 681–698. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08843759508947700.
Motahhari, H., Schoeggl, F.F., Satyro, M.A. et al. 2011. Prediction of the Viscosity of Solvent Diluted Live Bitumen at Temperatures up to 175°C. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, 15–17 November. SPE-149405-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149405-MS.
Motamed, A., Bhasin, A., and Liechti, K.M. 2013. Constitutive Modeling of the Nonlinearly Viscoelastic Response of Asphalt Binders; Incorporating Three-Dimensional Effects. Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials 17 (1): 83–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11043-012-9178-9.
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., and Abedi, J. 2012. Development and Evaluation of a Modified Experimental Apparatus for Phase Behavior Study of Solvent–Heavy Crude Systems. Fuel Processing Technology 102: 116–123.
Nourozieh, H. 2013. Phase Partitioning and Thermo-physical Properties of Athabasca Bitumen / Solvent Mixtures. PhD thesis, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (September 2013).
Nourozieh, H., Kariznovi, M., Guan, J. et al. 2013. Measurement of Thermo-Physical Properties and Modeling for Pseudo-Binary Mixtures of n-Decane and Athabasca Bitumen. Fluid Phase Equilibria 347: 62–75.
Oyekunle, L. 2000. A Two-Parameter Correlation for Petroleum Bitumens. Petroleum Science and Technology 18 (1-2): 63–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460008949832.
Pedersen, K., Fredenslund, A., Christensen, P. et al. 1984. Viscosity of Crude Oils. Chemical Engineering Science 39 (6): 1011–1016. http://dx/doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(84)87009-8.
Pedersen, K. and Fredenslund, A. 1987. An Improved Corresponding States Model for the Prediction of Oil and Gas Viscosities and Thermal Conductivities. Chemical Engineering Science 42 (1): 182–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(87)80225-7.
Peng, D.Y. and Robinson, D.B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 15 (1): 59–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Puttagunta, V.R., Singh, B., and Miadonye, A. 1993. Correlation of Bitumen Viscosity with Temperature and Pressure. Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 71 (3): 447–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450710315.
Reid, R., Prausnitz, J., and Sherwood, T. 1977. The Properties of Gases and Liquids, third edition, 435–436. New York City, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
Svrcek, W. and Mehrotra, A. 1988. One-Parameter Correlation for Bitumen Viscosity. Chemical Engineering Research & Design 66 (4): 323–327.
Svrcek, W. and Mehrotra, A. 1989. Properties of Peace River Bitumen Saturated with Field Gas Mixtures. J Can Pet Technol 28 (2): 50–56. PETSOC-89-02-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89-02-01.
WinProp, 2011. Computer Modelling Group Ltd. Calgary, Alberta.