Accurate Predictions of Velocity Profiles and Frictional Pressure Losses in Annular YPL-Fluid Flow
- Yahya Hashemian (Schlumberger) | Mengjiao Yu (University of Tulsa) | Stefan Miska (University of Tulsa) | Siamack Shirazi (University of Tulsa) | Ramadan Ahmed (University of Oklahoma)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- November 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 355 - 363
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- numerical simulation, eccentric annulus, YPL fluid flow, velocity profile, frictional pressure losses
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 641 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
Eccentricity of the annulus can greatly affect the velocity profile, especially in extended-reach wells and slimholes. While frictional pressure losses in concentric and fully eccentric annuli have been studied before, this paper focuses on the effect of arbitrary eccentricities on velocity profile and corresponding influence on frictional pressure losses.
In this study, axial flow of yield-power-law (YPL) fluids in eccentric annuli for a 2D steady-state flow has been investigated numerically and verified against experiments. A boundary-fitted coordinate system is used to discretize the flow equations and generate the mesh network. Fluid-flow equations were solved adopting an iterative method. The results of simulation include the effects of fluid rheology, flow rate, annulus dimensions, and eccentricity on velocity profile and frictional pressure losses in the annulus. Numerical results were compared with the available extensive experimental investigations on the flow of a variety of drilling fluids that have a strong shear-thinning property and high yield stress (e.g., polymer-based and bentonite fluids). The tests were implemented over a wide range of flow rates using a flow loop that is equipped with a pipe viscometer and several annular test sections with various sizes and eccentricities.
Field observations, experimental data, and the analytical approach in this study indicate that increasing eccentricity lowers frictional pressure drop in the annulus. A good agreement was observed between the numerical-simulation results and experimental measurements. Comparison of the present and past studies with analytical solutions of Newtonian fluids in an eccentric annulus shows that the current study provides more-accurate results.
Detailed numerical simulation and the equations that are presented in this study can be used by investigators. The application of the Cartesian and boundary-fitted coordinate systems and algebraic correlations for geometry transformations are presented. Moreover, the exact method of flow-rate calculation based on the velocities at each gridpoint is shown in the provided details.
The application of findings in this study includes more-accurate predictions of velocity profile and frictional pressure loss in the annulus, which lead to better predictions of barite sag, cuttings transport, equivalent circulating density, and mud cement displacement in special cases of cementing operations.
|File Size||976 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Ahmed, R. 2005. Experimental Study and Modeling of Yield Power-Law Fluid Flow in Pipes and Annuli. The University of Tulsa, Drilling Research Projects, TUDRP Advisory Board Meeting, Tulsa, Oklahoma (14–15 November 2005).
Alderman, N. J., Ram Babu, D., Hughes, T.L. et al. 1988. The Rheological Properties of Water-Based Drilling Fluids. In The Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of Chemicals in the Oil Industry, 14–30, Manchester, England: University of Manchester.
Azouz, I. 1994. Numerical Simulation of Laminar and Turbulent Flows of Wellbore Fluids in Annular Passages of Arbitrary Cross-Section. PhD dissertation, Tulsa, Oklahoma, University of Tulsa.
Escudier, M.P., Gouldson, I.W., Oliveira, P.J. et al. 2000. Effects of Inner Cylinder Rotation on Laminar Flow of a Newtonian Fluid Through an Eccentric Annulus. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow 21 (1): 92–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0142-727X(99)00059-4.
Escudier, M.P., Oliveira, P.J., and Pinho, F.T. 2002. Fully Developed Laminar Flow Of Purely Viscous Non-Newtonian Liquids Through Annuli, Including Of Eccentricity And Inner-Cylinder Rotation. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow. 23 (1): 52–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0142-727X(01)00135-7.
Fredrickson, A., and Bird, R.B. 1958. Non-Newtonian Flow in Annuli. Ind. Eng. Chem. 50 (30): 347–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie50579a035.
Haciislamoglu, M. 1989. Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Eccentric Annuli and Its Application to Petroleum Engineering Problems. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana State University.
Hanks, W.R. 1979. The Axial Laminar Flow of Yield-Pseudoplastic Fluids in a Concentric Annulus. Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Des. Dev. 18 (3): 488–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i260071a024.
Hashemian, Y. 2005. Numerical Simulation of Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Eccentric Annuli. MSc thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Hashemian, Y. 2012a. Experimental Study and Modeling of Barite Sag in Annular Flow. PhD dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Hashemian, Y. 2012b. Prediction of Barite Sag in Horizontal Annular Flow. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8-10 October. SPE-160916-STU. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/160916-STU.
Hashemian, Y., Miska, S., Yu, M. et al. 2014. Numerical Simulation and Experiments of Barite Sag in Horizontal Annulus. American Journal of Numerical Analysis 2 (1): 14–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/ajna-2-1-4.
Hoffmann, K.A. 1993. Computational Fluid Dynamics for Engineers, Vol. 1, second edition. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan: Engineering Education System.
Hussain, Q.E. and Sharif, M.A.R. 1998. Analysis of Yield-Power-Law Fluid in Irregular Eccentric Annuli. Journal of Energy Resources Technology. 120 (3): 201–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2795036.
Lamb, H. 1945. Hydrodynamics, sixth edition. New York City, New York: Dover Publications.
Luo, Y. and Peden, J. 1999. Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids Through Eccentric Annuli. SPE Production Engineering 5 (1): 91–96. SPE-16692-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16692-PA.
Miska, S.Z. 2004. Advanced Drilling. Teaching Note, University of Tulsa.
Ooms, G. and Kampman-Reinhartz, B.E. 1996. Influence of Drill Pipe Rotation and Eccentricity on Pressure Drop Over Borehole During Drilling. Eur. J. Mech 15 (5): 695–711.
Patankar, S.V. 1980. Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow, first edition. In Hemisphere Series on Computational Methods in Mechanics and Thermal Science. Washington D.C, USA: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation.
Piercy, N.A.V., Hooper, M.S., and Winny, H.F. 1933. Viscous Flow through Pipes with Core. Mag. J. Sci., 15: 647–676.
Pilehvari, A. 1989. Modeling of Laminar Helical Flow of a Power-Law Fluid Using the Finite Element Method. Technical Report, University of Tulsa Drilling Research Projects, Tulsa, Oklahoma.
Ribeiro, P.R., Podio, A.L., and Sepehrnoor, K. 1994. The Effect of Rotational Speed and Eccentricity on Annular Flows with Application to Slim Hole Drilling Hydraulics. Presented at the SPE Latin America/Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 27–29 April. SPE-26958-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26958-MS.
Skelland, A.H.P. 1967. Non-Newtonian Flow and Heat Transfer. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 11 (9): 1822–1823. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.1967.070110920.
Thompson, J.F., Warsi, Z.U.A., and Mastin, C.W. 1982. Boundary-Fitted Coordinate Systems for Numerical Solution of Partial Differential Equations—A Review. Journal of Computational Physics 47 (1): 1–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9991(82)90066-3.
Wang, H., Su, Y, Bai, Y. et al. 2000. Experimental Study of Slimhole Annular Pressure Loss and Its Field Applications. Presented at IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, 23–25 February. SPE-59265-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59265-MS.
Wei, X., Miska, S.Z., Takach, N.E. et al. 1998. The Effect of Drillpipe Rotation on Annular Frictional Pressure Loss. J. Energy Resour. Technol. 120 (1): 61–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.2795011.
Welty, J.R., Wicks, C.E., and Wilson, R.E. 1976. Fundamentals of momentum, heat, and mass transfer, New York, New York: Wiley.
Yamada, Y. 1962. Resistance of a Flow Through an Annulus with an Inner Rotating Cylinder. Bulletin of the Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineering (May 1962).