Geo-Stopping With Deep-Directional-Resistivity Logging-While-Drilling: A New Method for Wellbore Placement With Below-the-Bit Resistivity Mapping
- Eric R. Upchurch (Chevron Australia) | Mauro G. Viandante (Schlumberger) | Saad Saleem (Chevron Australia (currently with ADMA-OPCO)) | Ken Russell (Chevron Australia)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 295 - 306
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Well Control, LWD, Geo-Stopping, Deep Directional Resistivity
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 441 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The Wheatstone liquefied-natural-gas (LNG) Project in Western Australia uses subsea big-bore gas wells for producing the Wheatstone and Iago gas accumulations. These wells use a 9 5/8-in. production conduit from the top of the gas-pay zone to the ocean floor to maximize their productive capacity. A critical design requirement is that the 9 5/8-in. production conduit be set as close as possible to the target zone containing gas-pay intervals (i.e., preferably within 3 m) without actually penetrating into the productive core of a gas interval. In many instances, the top of the target zone and gas pay are one and the same. The wells must also intersect the horizontal top of the target zone at inclinations (inc) of 45–60°. These design requirements impose a significant challenge to the efficient execution of a Wheatstone well. Traditional “ahead-of-the-bit” logging-while-drilling (LWD) solutions are capable of detecting resistivity fluctuations up to 1 m in front of the drill bit. This, however, was considered an insufficient look-ahead distance to prevent premature penetration of a gas reservoir. Alternative solutions, such as pilot holes and biostratigraphic analysis of drilled cuttings, were also considered but found to be too expensive and/or operationally impractical.
During a search for a potential solution to this problem, the Wheatstone Project team reviewed a new reservoir mapping-while-drilling technology (Beer et al. 2010; Jenkins et al. 2012; Leveque et al. 2012; Netto et al. 2012; Peppard et al. 2012; Constable et al. 2012; Viandante et al. 2013; Pontarelli et al. 2014; Seydoux et al. 2014; Dupuis and Mendoza-Barrón 2014) that was being field-tested for in-zone steering of horizontal wells and/or landing such wells at shallow angles of incidence relative to formation bedding (i.e.,<13°). The technology, on the basis of deep-directional-resistivity (DDR) measurements, was recognized as a potential solution by the Wheatstone Project team, considering that it showed some promise for being able to predict/infer resistivity changes farther below the bit than previous systems. Deploying the technology at Wheatstone, however, would impose operating conditions for which it was neither designed nor intended (i.e., angles of incidence as high as 30–45°). Ultimately, the technology was successfully tested at Wheatstone and became the Project’s default method for landing all big-bore gas wells to the required level of accuracy described above.
This paper details (1) the safety and well-design drivers that precipitated the need for using DDR technology, (2) the physics and logic of this LWD system, (3) the new concept for applying the system in nonhorizontal applications, and (4) the observed results from all wells (seven in total) in which the technology was used. To fully evaluate the results, the below-the-bit resistivity and formation depths that were predicted by the DDR system while drilling above the gas-bearing target zone are compared with the actual formation depths and resistivities that were directly measured later when drilling through the target zone. Directly comparing the real-time DDR estimates to actual in-zone measurements, taken in the same strata and geographic locations, has allowed us to clearly determine both the system’s geometric limits for detecting resistivity variations below the bit and its ability to accurately resolve the depth and resistivity of formations before penetrating them.
|File Size||934 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Beer, R., Terço Dias, L. C., Vieira da Cunha, A. M. et al. 2010. Geosteering and/or Reservoir Characterization: The Prowess of New-Generation LWD Tools. Presented at the SPWLA 51st Annual Logging Symposium, Perth, Australia, 19–23 June. SPWLA-2010-93320.
Bittar, M., Klein, J., Beste, R. et al. 2009. A New Azimuthal Deep-Reading Resistivity Tool for Geosteering and Advanced Formation Evaluation. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (2): 270–279. April. SPE-109971-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109971-PA.
Clark, B., Lüling, M. G., Jundt, J. et al. 1988. A Dual Depth Resistivity Measurement for FEWD. Presented at the SPWLA 29th Annual Logging Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 5–8 June. SPWLA-1988-A.
Constable, M. V., Antonsen, F., Olsen, P. A. et al. 2012. Improving Well Placement and Reservoir Characterization With Deep Directional Resistivity Measurements. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–10 October. SPE-159621-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159621-MS.
Dong, C., Dupuis, C., Morriss, C. et al. 2015. Application of Automatic Stochastic Inversion for Multilayer Reservoir Mapping While Drilling Measurements. Presented at the SPE Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 9–12 November. SPE-177883-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/177883-MS.
Dupuis, C. and Mendoza-Barrón, V. 2014. Avoid Pilot Holes, Land Wells, and Optimize Well Placement and Production With Deep Directional Resistivity Logging-While-Drilling. Presented at the SPE Bergen One Day Seminar, Bergen, Norway, 2 April. SPE-169206-MS.
Gravem, T., Berle, A., Gundersen, S. S. et al. 2007. Combining Advanced Real-Time LWD Answers With Accurate and Flexible 3D Rotary-Steerable System for Proactive Reservoir Navigation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11–14 November. SPE-110340-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110340-MS.
Jenkins, S., Sims, A., Oldham, E. et al. 2012. De-Risking a Horizontal Well Through Application of New Deep Directional Resistivity Tool to Equate Seismic Data With Borehole Data. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 22–24 October. SPE-158040-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158040-MS.
Kok, K. H., Pruimboom, J., David, F. M. et al. 2005. Geostopping With Resistivity-Forward Modeling To Prevent Drilling Into the Lost-Circulation Zone of a Prolific Carbonate Reservoir. SPE Drill & Compl 20 (4): 276–280. SPE-85306-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/85306-PA.
Larsen, D. S., Hartmann, A., Luxey, P. et al. 2015. Extra-Deep Azimuthal Resistivity for Enhanced Reservoir Navigation in a Complex Reservoir in the Barents Sea. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-174929-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/174929-MS.
Leveque, S., Dupuis, C., St?rmose, T. et al. 2012. Geosteering the Impossible Well: A Success Story From the North Sea. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–10 October. SPE-159132-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159132-MS.
Li, Q., Omeragic, D., Chou, L. et al. 2005. New Directional Electromagnetic Tool for Proactive Geosteering and Accurate Formation Evaluation While Drilling. Presented at the SPWLA 46th Annual Logging Symposium, New Orleans, 26–29 June. SPWLA-2005-UU.
Netto, P., Gonçalves Meira, A. A., Vieira da Cunha, A. M. et al. 2012. Landing a Well Using a New Deep Electromagnetic Directional LWD Tool. Can We Spare a Pilot Well? Presented at the SPWLA 53rd Annual Logging Symposium, Cartagena, Columbia, 16–20 June. SPWLA-2012-225.
Peppard, B., Samaroo, R., Seydoux, J. et al. 2012. Revolutionizing Reservoir Characterization Using the New Deep Electromagnetic Directional LWD Tool. Presented at the Rio Oil & Gas Expo and Conference, Rio de Janeiro, 17–20 September. IBP2047_12.
Pontarelli, L., Viandante, M., Skinner, G. et al. 2014. Eliminate Pilot Holes. An Innovative Solution to Successful Landing and Production. Presented at the Indonesian Petroleum Association 38th Annual Convention and Exhibition, Jakarta, May. IPA14-E-160.
Rabinovich, M., Le, F., Lofts, J. et al. 2012. The Vagaries and Myths of Look-Around Deep-Resistivity Measurements While Drilling. Petrophysics 53 (2): 86–101. SPWLA-2012-v53n2a2.
Seydoux, J., Legendre, E., Mirto, E. et al. 2014. Full 3D Deep Directional Resistivity Measurements Optimize Well Placement and Provide Reservoir-Scale Imaging While Drilling. Presented at the SPWLA 55th Annual Logging Symposium, Abu Dhabi, 18–22 May. SPWLA-2014-LLLL.
Tabanou, J. R., Denichou, J. M., Horkowitz, J. et al. 2007. Going Beyond “Geometrical Drilling”: A Review of the Contribution of LWD Measurements to the Improvements of Well Placement. Presented at the SPWLA 1st India Regional Conference on Formation Evaluation in Horizontal Wells, Mumbai, 19–20 March.
Tilsley-Baker, R., Hartmann, A., Sviridov, M. et al. 2015. The Importance of Extra-Deep Azimuthal Resistivity in Reservoir Development: An Update on Recent Field Experiences. Presented at the OTC Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 27–29 October. OTC-26315-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/26315-MS.
Upchurch, E. R., Falkner, S., House, A. et al. 2015. Blowout Prevention and Relief Well Planning for the Wheatstone Big-Bore Gas Well Project. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 28–30 September. SPE-174890-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/174890-MS.
Viandante, M. G., Skinner, G., Pontarelli, L. et al. 2013. Adding a New Piece in the Puzzle Between Well Placement and Surface Seismic. Presented at the Second EAGE Workshop on Geosteering and Well Placement, Dubai, 22–25 September. GS06.
Viandante, M., Pontarelli, L., Fernandes, F. et al. 2015. 3D Reservoir Mapping While Drilling. Presented at the SPE/IATMI Asia Pacific Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, 20–22 October. SPE-176109-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/176109-MS.