Foams Stabilized by In-Situ Surface-Activated Nanoparticles in Bulk and Porous Media
- Robin Singh (University of Texas at Austin) | Kishore K. Mohanty (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 121 - 130
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- foam, enhanced oil recovery, mobility reduction factor, nanoparticle
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 907 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Foams for subsurface applications are traditionally stabilized by surfactants. The goal of this work is to study foam stabilization by nanoparticles—in particular, by in-situ surface hydrophobization of hydrophilic nanoparticles. The interfacial properties of the nanoparticles were modulated by the attachment of short-chain surface modifiers (alkyl gallates) that render them partially hydrophobic, but still fully dispersible in water. First, static foams were generated with nanoparticles with varying concentrations of surface modifiers. The decay of foam height with time was measured, and half-lives were determined. Optical micrographs of foam stabilized by surface-modified nanoparticles (SMNPs) and surfactant were recorded. Second, aqueous foams were created in-situ by coinjecting the SMNP solutions with nitrogen gas through a Berea sandstone core at a fixed quality. Pressure drop across the core was measured to estimate the achieved resistance factor. These pressure-drop results were then compared with those of a typical surfactant (alpha olefin sulfonate, alkyl polyglucoside) under similar conditions. Finally, oil-displacement experiments were conducted in Berea cores with surfactant and SMNP solutions as foaming agents (coinjection with nitrogen gas). A Bartsch shake test revealed the strong foaming tendency of SMNPs even with a very low initial surface-modifier concentration (0.05 wt%), whereas hydrophilic nanoparticles alone could not stabilize foam. The bubble texture of foam stabilized by SMNPs was finer than that with surfactants, indicating a stronger foam. As the degree of surface coating increased, the resistance factor of SMNP foam in a Berea core increased significantly. The corefloods in the sandstone cores with a reservoir crude oil showed that immiscible foams with SMNP solution can recover a significant amount of oil (20.6% of original oil in place) over waterfloods.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Alargova, R. G., Warhadpande, D. S., Paunov, V. N. et al. 2004. Foam Superstabilization by Polymer Microrods. Langmuir 20 (24): 10371–10374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la048647a.
Bernard, G. G. and Jacobs, W. L. 1965. Effect of Foam on Trapped Gas Saturation and on Permeability of Porous Media to Water. SPE J. 5 (4): 295–300. SPE-1204-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1204-PA.
Binks, B. P. and Horozov, T. S. 2005. Aqueous Foams Stabilized Solely by Silica Nanoparticles. Angewandte Chemie 44 (24): 3722–3725. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.200462470.
Binks, B. P. and Lumsdon, S. O. 2000. Influence of Particle Wettability on the Type and Stability of Surfactant-Free Emulsions. Langmuir 16 (23): 8622–8631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la000189s.
Chen, Y., Ehlag, A. S., Poon, B. M. et al. 2012. Ethoxylated Cationic Surfactants for CO2 EOR in High Temperature, High Salinity Reservoirs. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 14–18 April. SPE-154222-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154222-MS.
Chen, Q., Gerritsen, M. G., and Kovscek, A. R. 2010. Modeling Foam Displacemnet With the Local-Equilibrium Approximation: Theory and Experimental Verification. SPE J. 15 (1): 171–183. SPE-116735-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116735-PA.
Cui, Z. G., Cui, Y. Z., Cui, C. F. et al. 2010. Aqueous Foams Stabilized by In-Situ Surface Activation of Caco3 Nanoparticles Via Adsorption of Anionic Surfactant. Langmuir 26 (15): 12567–12574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la1016559.
Cui, H., Zhao, Y., Ren, W. et al. 2013. Aqueous Foams Stabilized Solely by CoOOH Nanoparticles and the Resulting Construction of Hierarchically Hollow Structure. J. Nanoparticle Research 15 (8): 1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11051-013-1851-7.
Enick, R., Olsen, D., Ammer, J. et al. 2012. Mobility and Conformance Control for CO2 EOR via Thickeners, Foams, and Gels—A Literature Review of 40 Years of Research and Pilot Tests. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 14–18 April. SPE-154122-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154122-MS.
Espinosa, D., Caldelas, F., Johnston, K. et al. 2010. Nanoparticle-Stabilized Supercritical CO2 Foams for Potential Mobility Control Applications. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 24–28 April. SPE-129925-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129925-MS.
Gonzenbach, U. T., Studart, A. R., Tervoort, E. et al. 2006. Stabilization of Foams With Inorganic Colloidal Particles. Langmuir 22 (26): 10983–10988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la061825a.
Grigg, R. B. and Mikhalin, A. A. 2007. Effects of Flow Conditions and Surfactant Availability on Adsorption. Proc., International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, USA, 28 February–2 March. SPE-106205-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106205-MS.
Haugen, A., Ferno, M.A., Graue, A. Et al. 2010. Experimental Study of Foam Flow in Fractured Oil-Wet Limestone for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 24–28 April. SPE-129763-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129763-MS.
Hidber, P. C., Graule, T. J., and Gauckler, L. J. 1997. Influence of the Dispersant Structure on Properties of Electrostatically Stabilized Aqueous Alumina Suspensions. J. European Ceramic Society 17 (2): 239–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2219(96)00151-3.
Hirasaki, G. J. and Lawson, J. B. 1985. Mechanisms of Foam Flow in Porous Media: Apparent Viscosity in Smooth Capillaries. SPE J. 25 (2): 176–190. SPE-12129-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12129-PA.
Kam, S. I. and Rossen, W. R. 1999. Anomalous Capillary Pressure, Stress, and Stability of Solids-Coated Bubbles. J. Colloid and Interface Science 213 (2): 329–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10.1006/jcis.1999.6107.
Kibodeaux, K. R. and Rossen, W. R. 1997. Coreflood Study of Surfactant-Alternating-Gas Foam Processes: Implications for Field Design. Proc., SPE Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, California, USA, 25–27 June. SPE-38318-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38318-MS.
Kovscek, A. R., Patzek, T. W., and Radke, C. J. 1994. Mechanistic Prediction of Foam Displacement in Multidimensions: A Population Balance Approach. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 17–20 April. SPE-27789-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/27789-MS.
Lake, L. W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Liu, Q., Zhang, S., Sun, D. et al. 2009. Aqueous Foams Stabilized by Hexylamine-Modified Laponite Particles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 338 (1): 40–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2008.12.035.
Martinez, A. C., Rio, E., Delon, G. et al. 2008. On the Origin of the Remarkable Stability of Aqueous Foams Stabilised by Nanoparticles: Link With Microscopic Surface Properties. Soft Matter 4 (7): 1531–1535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B804177F.
Mo, D., Liu, N., Jia, B. et al. 2014. Study Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 Foam for Oil Recovery at Different Pressure Temperature and Rock Samples. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 12–16 April. SPE-169110-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169110-MS.
Mohanty, K. K. 2003. The Near-Term Energy Challenge. AIChE J. 49 (10): 2454–2460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690491002.
Nguyen, P., Fadaei, H., and Sinton, D. 2014. Nanoparticle Stabilized CO2 in Water Foam for Mobility Control in Enhanced Oil Recovery via Microfluidic Method. Proc., SPE Heavy Oil Conference–Canada, Alberta, Canada, 10–12 June. SPE-170167-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170167-MS.
Orr, F. M. 2007. Theory of Gas-Injection Processes. Copenhagen: Tie-Line Publications.
Orr Jr., F. M., Heller, J. P., and Taber, J. J. 1982. Carbon Dioxide Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery: Promise and Problems. J. American Oil Chemists’ Society 59 (10): 810A–817A. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02634446.
Paul, K. T., Satpathy, S. K., Manna, I. et al. 2007. Preparation and Characterization of Nano Structured Materials From Fly Ash: A Waste From Thermal Power Stations, by High-Energy Ball Milling. Nanoscale Research Letters 2 (8): 397–404. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11671-007-9074-4.
Rafati, R., Hamidi, H., and Idris, A. K. 2012. Application of Sustainable Foaming Agents to Control the Mobility of Carbon Dioxide in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 10–12 December. SPE-163287-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163287-MS.
Roostapour, A. and Kam, S. 2013. Anomalous Foam-Fractional-Flow Solutions at High Injection Foam Quality. SPE Res Eval & Eng 16 (1): 40–50. SPE-152907-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152907-PA.
Rossen, W. R. 1996. Foams in Enhanced Oil Recovery. In Foams: Theory, Measurements, and Applications, ed. R. K. Prudhomme and S. Khan, Surfactant Science Series, 413–464. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Rossen, W., van Duijn, C., Nguyen, Q. et al. 2010. Injection Strategies To Overcome Gravity Segregation in Simultaneous Gas and Water Injection Into Homogeneous Reservoirs. SPE J. 15 (1): 76–90. SPE-99794-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99794-PA.
Simjoo, M., Dong, Y., Andrianov, A. et al. 2013. Novel Insight Into Foam Mobility Control. SPE J. 18 (3): 416–427. SPE-163092-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163092-PA.
Singh, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2014. Synergistic Stabilization of Foams by a Mixture of Nanoparticles and Surfactants. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 12–16 April. SPE-169126-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169126-MS.
Singh, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2015. Synergy Between Nanoparticles and Surfactants in Stabilizing Foams for Oil Recovery. Energy & Fuels 29 (2): 467–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef5015007.
Spirov, P., Rudyk, S., and Khan, A. 2012. Foam Assisted WAG Snorre Revisit With New Foam Screening Model. Presented at the North Africa Technical Conference and Exhibition, Cairo, Egypt, 20–22 February. SPE-150829-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150829-MS.
Stocco, A., Drenckhan, W., Rio, E. et al. 2009. Particle-Stabilised Foams: An Interfacial Study. Soft Matter 5 (11): 2215–2222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B901180C.
Stocco, A., Rio, E., Binks, B. P. et al. 2011. Aqueous Foams Stabilized Solely by Particles. Soft Matter 7 (4): 1260–1267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C0SM01290D.
Worthen, A., Bagaria, H., Chen, Y. et al. 2012. Nanoparticle Stabilized Carbon Dioxide in Water Foams for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Proc. SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 14–18 April. SPE-154285-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154285-MS.
Worthen, A. J., Bryant, S. L., Huh, C. et al. 2013. Carbon Dioxide-in-Water Foams Stabilized With Nanoparticles and Surfactant Acting in Synergy. AIChE J. 59 (9): 3490–3501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.14124.
Yu, J., Liu, N., Lee, R. L. et al. 2014. Study of Particle Structure and Hydrophobicity Effects on the Flow Behavior of Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO2 Foam in Porous Media. Proc., SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 12–16 April. SPE-169047-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169047-MS.