Effect of Hardness Reducers on Failure Characteristics of Rock
- L.H. Robinson (Esso Production Research Co.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- September 1967
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 295 - 300
- 1967. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials, 1.5 Drill Bits, 1.6 Drilling Operations
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Triaxial compression tests on Indiana limestone indicate that chemical additives in the pore fluids can increase or decrease the strength in plastic failure but not in brittle failure. Tests using a series of the sodium salts of dicarboxylic acids show that odd-number carbon-atom chains decrease the yield strength as much as 3.0 x 10 3 psi, and even-number carbon-atom chains increase the yield strength as much as 9.0 x 10 2 psi. The most effective chemical (sodium citrate) decreased the yield strength of Indiana limestone from 16.0 x 103 to 12.0 x 103 psi.
The chemical additives investigated have no influence on microbit drilling rate when drilling with zero differential pressure. However, when drilling at a 2.0 x 10 3-psi pressure differential and using an odd-number carbon chain compound as the circulating fluid, the roller bit drilling rates were slower than with water whereas the drag bit drilling rates were faster. One even-number carbon chain compound added to the circulating fluid produces the opposite effect: the roller bit drilling rate is slightly faster than with water and the drag bit slower than with water.
A Russian book by Rehbinder published in 1944 generated much interest in the possibility of aiding and accelerating the destruction of solids by the action of a liquid in which the solids are deformed. This book describes a process in which microcracks are generated during elastic deformation. To describe this process, the rock is divided into three zones: (1) the zone in which the destruction takes place, (2) the predestruction zone (an affected area immediately below the destroyed zone) and (3) the undisturbed specimen. Consider a load applied normally to a surface of an infinite slab of rock. Immediately below the point of application of the load, the rock is destroyed by compression or shear forces. Below this area of destruction, because of a great number of discontinuities ranging from defects to weak points in crystals of discontinuities in crystal latices, very small cracks are created in or between the crystals (often referred to as microcracks). Upon removing the load, the broken rock in the destroyed zone could be removed. In the lower predestruction zone, however, the microcracks in and between the crystals could disappear by the process of revealing, i.e., the molecular attraction from one side of the crack to the other side being sufficient to completely eliminate the crack. Thus, a large number of these microcracks possibly exist only for a relatively short period of time. The concept of small cracks being generated within the crystals of a rock is not unreasonable. If the rock matrix is deformed below the yield point, some of the defects present within the crystalline structure could start small cracks through the interior of the grains. Upon removal of the load, these microcracks reveal (or the newly generated surfaces come back together) so that all evidence of cracks completed disappears. Under various types of loading, and in various types of fluids, the rehealing of these cracks would be time dependent. If a liquid adhered to the surface of a rock, it could penetrate into the microcracks and thus delay or prevent the rehealing process. This suggests that the prevention of healing of the microcracks may be dependent upon the wetting characteristics of the solid. Thus, rocks which are water-wet should be more easily destroyed in water than in nonpolar hydrocarbon liquid. Adsorption of a liquid could also reduce the free surface energy which could explain the decrease in strengths of materials under nonrepetitive-type loading. Rehbinder's work prompted Boozer, Hiller and Serdengecti to examine the effects of pore fluids on the deformation of rocks subjected to triaxial compression over a range of concerning pressures, temperatures and strain rates. Fluids which strongly adsorbed on the rock grain surfaces decreased the strength of sandstone and limestone, which deformed plastically.
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