Matrix Permittivity Measurements for Rock Powders
- Nikita V Seleznev (Schlumberger-Doll Research) | Kamilla Fellah (Schlumberger-Doll Research) | John Phillips (Schlumberger WTA(M) Sdn.Bhd) | Siti Najmi Zulkipli (PETRONAS Carigali Sdn. Bhd.) | Bastien Fournié (Cabinet Beau de Loménie)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 214 - 225
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- dielectric logging, matrix permittivity, matrix dielectric constant, dielectric measurements
- 21 in the last 30 days
- 279 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Formation water content is one of the key petrophysical quantities provided by dielectric logging. However, to determine water content from formation permittivity measurements, the rock matrix permittivity must be known. Uncertainty in the rock matrix permittivity values translates into uncertainty in the water-content estimate,which is especially important in low-porosity formations or complex lithologies. Matrix permittivity values are not well-known for a number of minerals and can also vary for the same type of mineral in different formations. Thus, a laboratory methodology for the accurate determination of matrix permittivity at dielectric logging frequencies is required to facilitate accurate log interpretation. One can measure matrix permittivity values on solid plugs (Seleznev et al. 2011). However, the plug-based methodology can be challenging in very-low-permeability or unconventional reservoirs because of difficulties with plug drying. In addition, it is not readily applicable to unconsolidated formations. Finally, it may be impossible to cut solid plugs because of limited availability of rock material. Matrix permittivity measurements made on rock powders are capable of addressing all these issues. We introduce a methodology for laboratory measurements of matrix permittivity on rock powders at 1 GHz. The methodology is based on conducting dielectric measurements on mixtures of rock powders and liquids with variable permittivities in a dielectric resonator. The permittivity of the rock matrix is inverted from a series of measurements obtained on pure liquids and powder/liquid mixtures. The methodology was benchmarked on a collection of samples representing common oilfield lithologies with matrixpermittivity values between 4.6 and 8.6. The reference matrixpermittivity values were first measured on solid plugs. Then, the plugs were crushed into powders, and the matrix permittivity values were determined on powders following the proposed methodology. The values obtained on powders matched the ones measured on solid plugs within 0.2 dielectric units, resulting in accuracies better than 1% for the water-filled porosity and better than 1,000 ppm for water salinity. This new methodology was applied to a number of core samples from a carbonate reservoir offshore Sarawak, where dielectric logging was performed along with conventional core analysis. The resulting measured matrix permittivity values were then used to interpret the dielectric log measurement. Results showed a better estimation of water-filled porosity and of the textural MN parameter, equivalent to the Archie’s cementation exponent in a waterbearing zone, than would have resulted from using “chartbook” values of matrix permittivity. A consistent and optimized interpretation was obtained in porosities ranging from 5% to more than 30%.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Anderson, V., Meeten, G., and Clarke, A. 2012. Matrix Permittivity Determination. Patent Application No. WO 2012/176129 A2.
Anderson, V., Clarke, A., and Meeten, G. 2013. Permittivity Measurement of Minerals. J. Physics: Conference Series 472 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/472/1/012008.
Birchak, J. R., Gardner, C. G., Hipp, J. E. et al. 1974. High Dielectric Constant Microwave Probes for Sensing Soil Moisture. Proc., IEEE 62 (1): 93–98.
Calvert, T. J. and Wells, L. E. 1977. Electromagnetic Propagation—A New Dimension in Logging. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 13–15 April. SPE-6542-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6542-MS.
Courtney, W. E. 1970. Analysis and Evaluation of a Method of Measuring the Complex Permittivity and Permeability of Microwave Insulators. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 18 (8): 476–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMTT.1970.1127271.
Ellis, D. V. and Singer, J. M. 2007. Well Logging for Earth Scientists, second edition, New York: Elsevier Science Publishing Co.
Epting, M. 1980. Sedimentology of Miocene Carbonate Buildups, Central Luconia, Offshore Sarawak. Bull., Geological Society of Malaysia 12:17–30.
Epting, M. 1989. The Miocene Carbonate Buildups of Central Luconia, Offshore Sarawak. In Atlas of Seismic Stratigraphy: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Studies in Geology, ed. A. W. Bally, Vol. 27, 168–173.
Feng, S. and Sen, P. N. 1985. Geometrical Model of Conductive and Dielectric Properties of Partially Saturated Rocks. J. Applied Physics 58 (8): 3236–3243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.335804.
Hizem, M., Budan, H., Deville, B. et al. 2008. Dielectric Dispersion: A New Wireline Petrophysical Measurement. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, USA, 21–24 September. SPE-116130-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116130-MS.
Krupka, J., Derzakowskiz, K., Riddlex, B. et al. 1998. A Dielectric Resonator for Measurements of Complex Permittivity of Low-Loss Dielectric Materials as a Function of Temperature. Meas. Sci. Technol. 9: 1751–1756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-0233/9/10/015.
Robinson, D. A. 2004. Measurement of the Solid Dielectric Permittivity of Clay Minerals and Granular Samples Using a TDR Immersion Method. Vadose Zone J. 3 (2): 705–713.
Schlumberger. 2013. Log-Interpretation Charts 2013 Edition. Houston, USA: Schlumberger.
Schmitt, D. P., Al-Harbi, A., Saldungaray, P. et al. 2011. Revisiting Dielectric logging in Saudi Arabia: Recent Experiences and Applications in Development and Exploration Wells. Presented at the SPE/DGS Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 15–18 May. SPE-149131-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149131-MS.
Seleznev, N., Boyd, A., Habashy, T. et al. 2004. Dielectric Mixing Laws for Fully and Partially Saturated Carbonate Rocks. Presented at the SPWLA 45th Annual Logging Symposium, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 6–9 June. Paper CCC.
Seleznev, N. V., Habashy, T. M., Boyd, A. J. et al. 2006. Formation Properties Derived From a Multi-frequency Dielectric Measurement. Presented at the SPWLA 47th Annual Logging Symposium, Veracruz, Mexico, 4–7 June. Paper VVV.
Seleznev, N., Kleinberg, R., Herron, M. et al. 2011. Applications of the Dielectric Dispersion Logging to Oil Shale Reservoirs. Presented at the SPWLA 52nd Annual Logging Symposium, Colorado Springs, USA, 14–18 May. Paper G.
Stroud, D., Milton, G. W., and De, B. R. 1986. Analytical Model for the Dielectric Response of Brine-Saturated Rocks. Physical Review B 34 (8): 5145–5153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.34.5145.
US Geological Survey. 2000. World Petroleum Assessment 2000— Geologic Province 3702, Greater Sarawak Basin. Washington, DC, USA: USGS.
Wohlfarth, Ch.1991. Static Dielectric Constants of Pure Liquids and Binary Liquid Mixtures. In Macroscopic and Technical Properties of Matter, ed. O. Madelung, Landolt-Bornstein, New Series. Book Subtitle: Supplement to IV/6. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b44266.