- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Waterflooding in Carbonate Reservoirs: Does the Salinity Matter?
- Ahmed M. Shehata (Texas A&M University) | Mohammed B. Alotaibi (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 304 - 313
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.7 Carbonate Reservoir, 5.3.4 Reduction of Residual Oil Saturation, 1.6.9 Coring, Fishing, 5.4.1 Waterflooding, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements
- carbonate reservoirs, coreflood, EOR, seawater, salinity
- 25 in the last 30 days
- 1,342 since 2007
- Show more detail
Waterflooding has been used for decades as a secondary oil-recovery mode to support oil-reservoir pressure and to drive oil into producing wells. Recently, the tuning of the salinity of the injected water in sandstone reservoirs was used to enhance oil recovery at different injection modes. Several possible low-salinity-waterflooding mechanisms in sandstone formations were studied. Also, modified seawater was tested in chalk reservoirs as a tertiary recovery mode and consequently reduced the residual oil saturation (ROS). In carbonate formations, the effect of the ionic strength of the injected brine on oil recovery has remained questionable. In this paper, coreflood studies were conducted on Indiana limestone rock samples at 195°F. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of the salinity of the injected brine on the oil recovery during secondary and tertiary recovery modes. Various brines were tested including deionized water, shallow-aquifer water, seawater, and as diluted seawater. Also, ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO2-4) were particularly excluded from seawater to determine their individual impact on fluid/rock interactions and hence on oil recovery. Oil recovery, pressure drop across the core, and core-effluent samples were analyzed for each coreflood experiment. The oil recovery using seawater, as in the secondary recovery mode, was, on the average, 50% of original oil in place (OOIP). A sudden change in the salinity of the injected brine from seawater in the secondary recovery mode to deionized water in the tertiary mode or vice versa had a significant effect on the oil-production performance. A solution of 20% diluted seawater did not reduce the ROS in the tertiary recovery mode after the injection of seawater as a secondary recovery mode for the Indiana limestone reservoir. On the other hand, 50% diluted seawater showed a slight change in the oil production after the injection of seawater and deionized water slugs. The Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO2-4 ions play a key role in oil mobilization in limestone rocks. Changing the ion composition of the injected brine between the different slugs of secondary and tertiary recovery modes showed a measurable increase in the oil production.
Ajwa, H.A. and Tabatabai, M.A. 1995. Metal-induced Sulfate Adsorption by Soils: Effect of pH and Ionic Strength. Soil Sci. 159 (1): 32–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-199501000-00004.
Aksulu, H. 2010. Effect of Core Cleaning Solvents on Wettability Restoration and Oil Recovery by Spontaneous Imbibition in Surface Reactive, Low Permeable Limestone Reservoir Cores. MSc thesis, University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway (October 2010).
Alotaibi, M.B., Nasralla, R.A., and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2011a. Wettability Studies Using Low-Salinity Water in Sandstone Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (6): 713–725. SPE-149942-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149942-PA.
Alotaibi, M.B., Nasr-El-Din, H.A., and Fletcher, J.J. 2011b. Electrokinetics of Limestone and Dolomite Rock Particles. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 594–603. SPE-148701-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148701-PA.
Alotaibi, M.B. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2011. Electrokinetics of Limestone Particles and Crude-Oil Droplets in Saline Solutions. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 604–611. SPE-151577-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151577-PA.
Austad, T., Shariatpanahi, S.F., Strand, S. et al. 2011. Conditions for a Low-Salinity Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Effect in Carbonate Oil Reservoirs. Energy Fuels 26 (1): 569–575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef201435g.
Barrow, N.J. and Shaw, T.C. 1977. The Slow Reactions between Soil and Anions: 7. Effect of Time and Temperature of Contact Between an Adsorbed Soil and Sulfate. Soil Sci. 124 (6): 347–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00010694-197712000-00007.
Brown, W.O. 1957. The Mobility of Connate Water During a Water Flood. In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 210, SPE-694-G, 190–195. New York: AIME.
Buckley, J.S. and Liu, Y. 1998. Some Mechanisms of Crude Oil/Brine/Solid Interactions. J. Petrol. Sci. & Eng. 20 (3–4): 155–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00015-1.
Chandrasekhar, S. and Mohanty, K.K. 2013. Wettability Alteration With Brine Composition in High Temperature Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166280-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166280-MS.
Chilingar, G.V. and Yen, T.F. 1993. Some Notes on Wettability and Relative Permeabilities of Carbonate Reservoir Rocks, II. Energy Sources 7 (1): 67–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00908318308908076.
Farida, A., Hashem, S.H., Abdulraheem B. et al. 2013. First EOR Trial Using Low Salinity Water Injection in the Greater Burgan Field, Kuwait. Presented at the 18th Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 10–13 March. SPE-16434-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16434-MS.
Farooq, O., Tweheyo, M.T., Sjöblom, J. et al. 2011. Surface Characterization of Model, Outcrop, and Reservoir Samples in Low Salinity Aqueous Solutions. J. Dispersion Sci. & Technol. 32 (4): 519–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01932691003756936.
Fathi, S.J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2010. “Smart Water” as a Wettability Modifier in Chalk: The Effect of Salinity and Ionic Composition. Energy Fuels 24 (4): 2514–2519. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef901304m.
Fathi, S.J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2011. Water-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by “Smart Water”: Optimal Ionic Composition for EOR in Carbonates. Energy Fuels 25 (11): 5173–5179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef201019k.
Fathi, S.J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2012. Water-Based Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) by “Smart Water” in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-154570-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154570-MS.
Green, D.W. and Willhite, G.P. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery, Chap. 2, 12–34. Richardson, Texas: SPEs.
Hall, A.C., Collins, S.H., and Melrose, J.C. 1983. Stability of Aqueous Wetting Films in Athabasca Tar Sands. SPE J. 23 (2): 249–258. SPE-10626-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10626-PA.
Hiorth, A., Cathles, L.M., and Madland, M.V. 2010. The Impact of Pore Water Chemistry on Carbonate Surface Charge and Oil Wettability. Transport in Porous Media 85 (1): 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9543-6.
Hognesen, E.J., Strand, S., and Austad, T. 2005. Waterflooding of Preferential Oil-Wet Carbonates: Oil Recovery Related to Reservoir Temperature and Brine Composition. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13–16 June. SPE 94166-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94166-MS.
Kaminsky, R. and Radke, C.J. 1997. Asphaltenes, Water Films, and Wettability Reversal. SPE J. 2 (4): 485–493. SPE-39087-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39087-PA.
Knecht, V., Risselada, H.J., Mark, A.E. et al. 2007. Electrophoretic Mobility Does Not Always Reflect the Charge on an Oil Droplet. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 318 (2): 477–486. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2007.10.035.
Kussakov, M.M. and Mekenitskaya, L.I. 1955. 5. On the Thickness of Thin Layers of Connate Water. Presented at the 4th World Petroleum Congress, Rome, Italy, 6–15 June. SPE-6134-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6134-MS.
Masden, L. 2006. Calcite: Surface Charge. In Encyclopedia of Surface and Colloid Science, ed. P. Somasundaran, Vol. 2, 1084-1096. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
McGuire, P.L., Chatham, J.R., Paskvan, F.K. et al. 2005. Low Salinity Oil Recovery: An Exciting New EOR Opportunity for Alaska’s North Slope. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Irvine, California, 30 March–1 April. SPE-93903-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93903-MS.
Morrow, N. and Buckley, J. 2011. Improved Oil Recovery by Low-salinity Waterflooding. J Pet Technol 63 (5): 106–112. SPE-129421-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129421-PA.
Nasralla, R.A. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2011. Impact of Electrical Surface Charges and Cation Exchange on Oil Recovery by Low Salinity Water. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 20–22 September. SPE-147937-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147937-MS.
Nasralla, R.A. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2014. Double-Layer Expansion: Is It a Primary Mechanism of Improved Oil Recovery by Low-Salinity Waterflooding? SPE Res Eval & Eng 17 (1): 49–59. SPE-154334-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154334-PA.
Omotoso, O.E., Munoz, V.A., and Mikula, R.J. 2002. Mechanisms of Crude Oil-Mineral Interactions. Spill Sci. & Technol. Bull. 8 (1): 45–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1353-2561(02)00116-0.
Puntervold, T., Strand, S., and Austad, T. 2007. New Method to Prepare Outcrop Chalk Cores for Wettability and Oil Recovery Studies at Low Initial Water Saturation. Energy Fuels 21 (6): 3425–3430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef700323c.
Russel, R.G., Morgan, F., and Muskat, M. 1947. Some Experiments on the Mobility of Interstitial Waters. In Transactions of the American Institute of Mining and Metallurgical Engineers, Vol. 170, 51–61. New York: AIME.
Schumacher, M.M. 1978. Enhanced Oil Recovery: Secondary and Tertiary Methods, Chap. 2, 23. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Data Corp.
Seccombe, J.C., Lager, A., Webb, K. et al. 2008. Improving Waterflood Recovery: LoSal EOR Field Evaluation. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20–23 April. SPE-113480-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113480-MS.
Shariatpanahi, S.F., Strand, S., and Austad, T. 2011. Initial Wetting Properties of Carbonate Oil Reservoirs: Effect of the Temperature and Presence of Sulfate in Formation Water. Energy Fuels 25 (7): 3021–3028. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200033h.
Smallwood, P.V. 1977. Some Aspects of the Surface Chemistry of Calcite and Aragonite, Part I: An Electrokinetic Study. Colloid & Polymer Sci. 255: 881–886. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf01617095.
Standnes, D.C. and Austad, T. 2000. Wettability alteration in chalk: 1. Preparation of core material and oil properties. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 28 (3): 111-121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(00)00083-8.
Tang, G. and Morrow, N.R. 1999. Influence of Brine Composition and Fines Migration on Crude Oil/Brine/Rock Interactions and Oil Recovery. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 24 (2–4): 99–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(99)00034-0.
Webb, K.J., Black, C.J.J., and Tjetland, G. 2005. A Laboratory Study Investigating Methods for Improving Oil Recovery in Carbonates. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 21-23 November. IPTC-10506-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/10506-MS.
Yousef, A.A., Al-Saleh, S.H., and Al-Kaabi, A. 2011. Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Injection-Water Salinity and Ionic Content on Oil Recovery From Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 578–593. SPE-137634-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137634-PA.
Yousef, A.A., Liu, J.S., Blanchard, G.W. et al. 2012. Smart Waterflooding: Industry’s First Field Test in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-159526-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159526-MS.
Zahid, A., Stenby, E.H., and Shapiro, A.A. 2012. Smart Waterflooding (High Sal/Low Sal) in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. SPE-154508-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154508-MS.
Zhang, P., Tweheyo, M.T., and Austad, T. 2007. Wettability Alteration and Improved Oil Recovery by Spontaneous Imbibition of Seawater Into Chalk: Impact of the Potential Determining Ions Ca2+, Mg2+, and SO42-. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. & Eng. Aspects 301 (1–3): 199–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2006.12.058.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.