Heavy-Oil Recovery by Combined Hot Water and Alkali/Cosolvent/Polymer Flooding
- Mohsen Tagavifar (University of Texas at Austin) | Robert Fortenberry (University of Texas at Austin) | Eric de Rouffignac (University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (University of Texas at Austin) | Gary A. Pope (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 74 - 86
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- electrical heating, optimization, alkali/cosolvent/polymer, reservoir simulation, chemical enhanced oil recovery (EOR)
- 8 in the last 30 days
- 852 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
A hybrid process is developed and optimized for heavy-oil recovery that combines moderate reservoir heating and chemical enhanced oil recovery in the form of alkali/cosolvent/polymer flood. The process is simulated by use of a model derived from existing laboratory and pilot data of a 5,000-cp heavy-oil field. It is found that hot waterflooding is efficient in heating the reservoir only when high early injectivity is achievable. This may not be the case if incipient fluid injectivity is low and/or long, continuous, horizontal shale baffles are present. To remedy the former, an electrical-preheating period is devised, whereas switching to a horizontal flood could overcome the latter. Once the reservoir temperature is raised sufficiently, a moderately unstable alkali/cosolvent/polymer flood is capable of mobilizing and displacing oil. A best combined strategy for efficient reservoir heating, high oil recovery, and cost effectiveness is found to involve reducing the oil viscosity to values of approximately 300-500 cp and combining a degree of mobility control and low interfacial tension as recovery mechanisms.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Anand, J., Somerton, W. H. and Gomaa, E. 1973. Predicting Thermal Conductivities of Formations From Other Known Properties. SPE J. 13 (5): 267–273. SPE-4171-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4171-PA.
Ardali, M., Barrufet, M., Mamora, D. D., et al. 2012. A Critical Review of Hybrid Steam/Solvent Processes for the Recovery of Heavy Oil and Bitumen. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-159257-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159257-MS.
Audet, C. and Dennis, J. E. Jr. 2004. A Pattern Search Filter Method for Nonlinear Programming without Derivatives. SIAM J. Optimiz. 14 (4): 980–1010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/S105262340138983X.
Al-Bahlani, A.-M. and Babadagli, T. 2009. SAGD Laboratory Experimental and Numerical Simulation Studies: A Review of Current Status and Future Issues. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 68 (3–4): 135–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.06.011.
Bachu, S. 1993. Basement Heat Flow in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin,” Tectonophysics 222 (1): 119–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0040-1951(93)90194-O.
Bhuyan, D., Lake, L. and Pope, G. 1990. Mathematical Modeling of High-pH Chemical Flooding. SPE Res Eval & Eng 5 (2): 213–220. SPE-17398-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17398-PA.
Bogdanov, I., Torres, J., El Ganaoui, K., et al. 2010. The Influence of Salt Concentration in Injected Water on Low Frequency Electrical-Heating Assisted Bitumen Recovery. Presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24–28 April. SPE-129909-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129909-MS.
Burrowes, A., Teare, M., Marsh, R., et al. 2011. Alberta’s Energy Reserves 2010 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2011–2020. Report No. ST98-2011, Energy Resources Conservation Board Publication, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, June 2011.
Chang, H., Farouq Ali, S. and George, A. 1992. Performance Of Horizontal-Vertical Combinations For Steamflooding Bottom Water Formations. J Can Pet Technol 31 (5): 41–51. PETSOC-92-05-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92-05-04.
Chhetri, A. B. and Islam, M. R. 2008. A Critical Review of Electromagnetic Heating for Enhanced Oil Recovery. Pet. Sci. Technol. 26 (14): 1619–1631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916460701287607.
Computer Modelling Group (CMG). 2011. CMG Ltd. STARS User’s Manual, Version 2011.10. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Computer Modelling Group.
Das, S. K. 2008. Electro-Magnetic Heating in Viscous Oil Reservoir. Presented at SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 20–23 October. SPE-117693-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117693-MS.
Davis, J. R. 1994. Stainless Steels. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International.
Delamaide, E. 2014. Polymer Flooding of Heavy Oil-From Screening to Full-Field Extension. Presented at SPE Heavy and Extra Heavy Oil Conference: Latin America, Medellin, Colombia, 24–26 September. SPE-171105-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/171105-MS.
Delamaide, E., Zaitoun, A., Renard, G., et al. 2013. Pelican Lake Field: First Successful Application of Polymer Flooding in a Heavy Oil Reservoir. Presented at SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2–4 July. SPE-165234-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165234-MS.
Delshad, M., Pope, G. A. and Sepehrnoori, K. 1996. A Compositional Simulator for Modeling Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation, 1 Formulation. J. Contam. Hydrol. 23 (4): 303–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-7722(95)00106-9.
Dobrosavljevic, A. S. and Maglic, K. D. 1992. Measurements of Specific Heat and Electrical Resistivity of Austenitic Stainless Steel in the Range 300–1500 K by Pulse Calorimetry. Int. J. Thermophys. 13 (1): 57–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00503355.
E-T Energy, Ltd. 2013. Poplar Creek ET-DSP Field Test–Experimental Scheme Approval No. 10457H. Oral presentation given at the annual Alberta Energy Regulator Progress Presentation, 16 May.
Fabbri, C., Cottin, C., Jimenez, J. et al. 2014. Secondary and Tertiary Polymer Flooding in Extra-Heavy Oil: Reservoir Conditions Measurements - Perfomance Comparison. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 19–22 January. IPTC-17703-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/IPTC-17703-MS.
Fortenberry, R. 2013. Experimental Demonstration and Improvement of Chemical EOR Techniques in Heavy Oils. Master’s thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (May 2013).
Fortenberry, R. P., Kim, D. H., Nizamidin, N., et al. 2013. Use of Co-Solvents to Improve Alkaline-Polymer Flooding. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166478-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166478-MS.
Gao, C. H. 2011. Scientific Research and Field Applications of Polymer Flooding in Heavy Oil Recovery. J. Petrol. Explor. Prod. Technol. 1 (2–4): 65–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13202-011-0014-6.
Gill, P., Murray, W. and Wright, M. 1981. Practical Optimization. London, UK: Academic Press.
Glandt, C. A. 1991. Method and Apparatus for Producing Hydrocarbon Bearing Deposits in Formations Having Shale Layers. US Patent No. 5046559 A.
Glandt, C. A. and Chia-Fu, H. 1992. Electric Preheating in Low-Injectivity Tar Sand Deposits. Presented at SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–24 April. SPE-24165-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24165-MS.
Han, M., Xiang, W., Zhang, J., et al. 2006. Application of EOR Technology by Means of Polymer Flooding in Bohai Oilfields. Presented at International Oil & Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, China, 5–7 December. SPE-104432-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/104432-MS.
Hiebert, A. D., Capjack, C. E., Chute, F. S., et al. 1983. A Simulation Code for Investigating 2D Heating of Material Bodies by Low Frequency Electric Fields. Appl. Math. Model. 7 (5): 366–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0307-904X(83)90136-1.
Horai, K. 1971. Thermal Conductivity of Rock-Forming Minerals. J. Geophys. Res. 76 (5): 1278–1308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB076i005p01278.
Kang, X., Zhang, J., Sun, F., et al. 2011. A Review of Polymer EOR on Offshore Heavy Oil Field in Bohai Bay China. Presented at SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 19–21 July. SPE-144932-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144932-MS.
Khodaverdian, M. F., Sorop, T., Postif, S. J., et al. 2010. Polymer Flooding in Unconsolidated-Sand Formations: Fracturing and Geomechanical Considerations. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (2): 211–222. SPE-121840-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121840-PA.
Koci, P. and Mohiddin, J. 2007a. Realistic History Matching of Cyclic Steam Stimulation Performance of Several Groups of Multilateral Wells in the Peace River Field, Canada. Presented at EUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, London, UK, 11–14 June. SPE-107201-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/107201-MS.
Koci, P. and Mohiddin, J. 2007b. Peace River Carmon Creek Project–Optimization of Cyclic Steam Stimulation Through Experimental Design. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11–14 November. SPE-109826-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109826-MS.
Kumar, R. and Mohanty, K. K. 2010. ASP Flooding of Viscous Oils. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-135265-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135265-MS.
Larter, S. R., Adams, J., Gates, I. D., et al. 2008. The Origin, Prediction and Impact of Oil Viscosity Heterogeneity on the Production Characteristics of Tar Sand and Heavy Oil Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 47 (1): 52–61. PETSOC-08-01-52. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/08-01-52.
Levitt, D., Bourrel, M., Bondino, I., et al. 2011. The Interpretation of Polymer Coreflood Results for Heavy Oil. Presented at SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12–14 December. SPE-150566-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150566-MS.
Luo, W. and Torabi, F. 2013. Coupling of Solvent and Hot Water to Improve Heavy Oil Recovery: Experimental and Simulation Studies. Presented at SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 11–13 June. SPE-165444-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165444-MS.
Masih, S., Ma, K., Sanchez, J., et al. 2012. The Effect of Bottom Water Coning and Its Monitoring for Optimization in SAGD. Presented at SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12–14 June. SPE-157797-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/157797-MS.
McGee, B. C. W. 2008. Electro-Thermal Pilot in the Athabasca Oil Sands: Theory Versus Performance. Presented at Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 17–19 June. PETSOC-2008-209. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2008-209.
McGee, B. C. and Vermeulen, F. E. 1996. Electrical Heating with Horizontal Wells The Heat Transfer Problem. Presented at International Conference on Horizontal Well Technology, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 18–20 November. SPE-37117-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/37117-MS.
McGee, B. C. W., and Vermeulen, F. E. 2007. The Mechanisms of Electrical Heating for the Recovery of Bitumen From Oil Sands. J Can Pet Technol 46 (1): 28–34. PETSOC-07-01-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-01-03.
McGee, B. C. W., Vermeulen, F. E. and Yu, L. 1999. Field Test of Electrical Heating With Horizontal And Vertical Wells. J Can Pet Technol 38 (3): 46–53. PETSOC-99-03-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-03-04.
Mohammadi, H., Delshad, M. and Pope, G. 2009. Mechanistic Modeling of Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Floods. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (4): 518–527. SPE-110212-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110212-PA.
Murphy Oil Company, Ltd. 2014. Seal Polymer Pilot, Scheme Approval No. 11320B. Oral presentation given at the annual Alberta ERCB Progress Presentation, June 3.
Mutyala, S., Fairbridge, C., Paré, J. R. J., et al. 2010. Microwave Applications to Oil Sands and Petroleum: A Review. Fuel Process. Technol. 91 (2): 127–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.09.009.
Oliveira, H., Barillas, J. L., da Mata, W., et al. 2009. Energetic Optimization to Heavy Oil Recovery by Electromagnetic Resistive Heating (ERH). Presented at Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, 31 May–3 June. SPE-122073-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122073-MS.
Oskouei, S. J. P., Maini, B., Moore, R. G., et al. 2012. Effect of Initial Water Saturation on the Thermal Efficiency of the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage Process. J Can Pet Technol 51 (5): 351–361. SPE-138846-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138846-PA.
Pizarro, J. O. S. and Trevisan, O. V. 1990. Electrical Heating of Oil Reservoirs: Numerical Simulation and Field Test Results. J Pet Technol 42 (10): 1320–1326. SPE-19685-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19685-PA.
Rangel-German, E. R., Schembre, J., Sandberg, C., et al. 2004. Electrical-Heating-Assisted Recovery for Heavy Oil. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 45 (3–4): 213–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2004.06.005.
Rice, S. A., Kok, A. L. and Neate, C. J. 1992. A Test Of The Electric Heating Process As A Means Of Stimulating The Productivity Of An Oil Well In The Schoonebeek Field. Presented at Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 7–10 June. PETSOC-92-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92-04.
Sahni, A., Kumar, M., Knapp, R. B., et al. 2000. Electromagnetic Heating Methods for Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at SPE/AAPG Western Regional Meeting, Long Beach, California, 19–22 June. SPE-62550-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62550-MS.
Seto, A. C. and Bharatha, S. 1991. Thermal Conductivity Estimation From Temperature Logs. Presented at SPE International Thermal Operations Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 7–8 February. SPE-21542-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21542-MS.
Shah, A., Fishwick, R., Wood, J., et al. 2010. A Review of Novel Techniques for Heavy Oil and Bitumen Extraction and Upgrading. Energy Environ. Sci. 3 (6): 700–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/B918960B.
Shell Canada, Ltd. 2009. Application for Approval of the Carmon Creek Project. Volume I: Project Description, November 2009. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Shell Canada, Ltd.
Shin, H. and Choe, J. 2009. Shale Barrier Effects on the SAGD Performance. Presented at SPE/EAGE Reservoir Characterization & Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 19–21 October. SPE-125211-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125211-MS.
Sierra, R., Tripathy, B., Bridges, J. E., et al. 2001. Promising Progress in Field Application of Reservoir Electrical Heating Methods. Presented at SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Porlamar, Margarita Island, Venezuela, 12–14 March. SPE-69709-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/69709-MS.
Skauge, A., Ormehaug, P. A. and Gurhoh, T. 2012. 2-D Visualisation of Unstable Waterflood and Polymer Flood for Displacement of Heavy Oil. Presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 14–18 April. SPE-154292-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154292-MS.
Sorensen, J. A. and Glass, G. E. 1987. Ion and Temperature Dependence of Electrical Conductance for Natural Waters. Anal. Chem. 59 (13): 1594–1597. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac00140a003.
Sugianto, S. and Butler, R. 1990. The Production Of Conventional Heavy Oil Reservoirs With Bottom Water Using Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Can Pet Technol 29 (2): 78–86. PETSOC-90-02-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90-02-03.
Tagavifar, M. 2014. Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery by Hybrid Thermal-Chemical Processes. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (May 2014).
The Mathworks, Inc. 2010. Genetic Algorithm and Pattern SearchToolbox, User’s Manual, Version 2. Natick, Massachusetts: The Mathworks, Inc.
Yang, G. and Butler, R. M. 1992. Effects Of Reservoir Heterogeneities On Heavy Oil Recovery By Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. J Can Pet Technol 31 (8): 37–43. PETSOC-92-08-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92-08-03.
Zhao, D., and Gates, I. 2013. Stochastic Optimization of Hot Water Flooding Strategy in Thin Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 11–13 June. SPE-165541-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165541-MS.
Zhong, L., Yu, D., Yang, H., et al. 2011. Feasibility Study on Producing Heavy Oil by Gas and Electrical Heating Assisted Gravity Drainage. Presented at Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 2–5 May. OTC-21649-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/21649-MS.
Zhu, Z. and Zeng, F. 2012. Evaluation of the Hybrid Process of Electrical Resistive Heating and Solvent Injection Through Numerical Simulations. Presented at SPE Heavy Oil Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12–14 June. SPE-157037-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/157037-MS.