Shale-Drape Modeling for the Geologically Consistent Simulation of Clastic Reservoirs
- Faruk O. Alpak (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.) | Frans F. van der Vlugt (Shell International Exploration and Production Inc.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 832 - 844
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.1.5 Geologic Modeling
- deepwater, shale drape, reservoir simulation, turbidite, waterflooding
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 304 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
A set of algorithms, called the shale-drape function (SDF), has been developed that incorporates bounding shales (shale drapes) for channels, channel belts (also known as meander belts), lobes and lobe complexes in 3D geologic models used for reservoir simulation. Shale drapes can have a significant impact on the recov-ery efficiency of clastic reservoirs. Therefore, they need to be modeled when present in significant quantities (in general, more than 50 to 70% in terms of coverage). The function incorporates shale drapes into a geologic model with an iterative process that creates shale layers over the entire surface of reservoir objects and then places ellipsoid-shaped holes into shale surfaces until a desired aerial coverage is reached. The workflow for application recommends to grid the simulation model along the boundaries of stratigraphic objects, thereby ensuring that the shales can be realistically represented in the fine-scale geomodel and preserved in the post-upscaling simulation model.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Alpak, F. O., Barton, M. D. and Castineira, D. 2011. Retaining Geologic Realism in Dynamic Modeling: A Channelised Turbidite Reservoir Example from West Africa. Petrol. Geosci. 17 (1): 35–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/1354-079309-033.
Alpak, F. O., Barton, M. D. and Naruk, S. 2013. The Impact of Fine-Scale Turbidite Channel Architecture on Deep-Water Reservoir Performance. AAPG Bull. 97 (2): 251–284. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/04021211067.
Alpak, F. O., Barton, M. D., van der Vlugt, F. F., et al. 2010. Simplified Modeling of Turbidite Channel Reservoirs. SPE J. 15 (2): 480–494. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114854-PA.
Ball, G. R. 2007. www.cse.buffalo.edu/~grball/Su07/DFS.ppt (accessed 24 July 2013).
Barton, M., O’Byrne, C., Pirmez, C., et al. 2010. Turbidite Channel Architecture: Recognizing and Quantifying the Distribution of Channel-base Drapes Using Core and Dipmeter Data. In Dipmeter and Borehole Image Log Technology, AAPG Memoir 92, eds. M. Pöppelreiter, C. García-Carballido, and M. A. Kraaijveld, 195–211. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Begg, S. H., Carter, R. R. and Dranfield, P. 1989. Assigning Effective Values to Simulator Gridblock Parameters for Heterogeneous Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (4): 455–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16754-PA.
Begg, S. H., Chang, D. M. and Haldorsen, H. H. 1985. A Simple Statistical Method for Calculating the Effective Vertical Permeability of a Reservoir Containing Discontinuous Shales. Paper SPE 14271 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, 22–26 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14271-MS.
Begg, S. H. and King, P. R. 1985. Modelling the Effects of Shales on Reservoir Performance: Calculation of Effective Vertical Permeability. Paper SPE 13529 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Dallas, Texas, 10–13 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13529-MS.
Ciammetti, G., Ringrose, P. S., Good, T. R., et al. 1995. Waterflood Recovery and Fluid Flow Upscaling in a Shallow Marine and Fluvial Sandstone Sequence. Paper SPE 30783 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 22–25 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30783-MS.
Cormen, T. H., Leiserson, C. E., Rivest, R. L., et al. 2001. Introduction to Algorithms, second edition. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press and McGraw-Hill Press.
Davies, B. J. and Haldorsen, H. H. 1987. Pseudofunctions in Formations Containing Discontinuous Shales: A Numerical Study. Paper SPE 16012 presented at the SPE Symposium on Reservoir Simulation, San Antonio, Texas, 1–4 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16012-MS.
Eikeland, K. M. and Hansen, H. 2009. Dry Gas Reinjection in a Strong Waterdrive Gas-Condensate Field Increases Condensate Recovery—Case Study: The Sleipner Øst Ty Field, South Viking Graben, Norwegian North Sea. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (2): 281–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110309-PA.
Gervais, A., Savoye, B., Mulder, T., et al. 2006. Sandy Modern Turbidite Lobes: A New Insight from High Resolution Seismic Data. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 23 (4): 485–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2005.10.006.
Grimmett, G. 1989. Percolation, second edition. Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Haldorsen, H. H. and Lake, L. W. 1984. A New Approach to Shale Management in Field-Scale Models. SPE J. 24 (4): 447–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10976-PA.
Haldorsen, H. H., Chang, D. M. and Begg, S. H. 1987. Discontinuous Vertical Permeability Barriers: A Challenge to Engineers and Geologists. In North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs, eds. J. Kleppe, E.W. Berg, A.T. Buller, O. Hjelmeland, and O. Torsæter, 127–151. London, UK: Graham and Trotman, London.
Hazeu, G. J. A., Krakstad, O. S., Rian, D. T., et al. 1988. The Application of New Approaches for Shale Management in a Three-Dimensional Simulation Study of the Frigg Field. SPE Form Eval 3 (3): 493–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15608-PA.
Hovadik, J. M. and Larue, D. K. 2007. Static Characterizations of Reservoirs: Refining the Concepts of Connectivity and Continuity. Petrol. Geosci. 13 (3): 195–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/1354-079305-697.
Jackson, M. D. and Muggeridge, A. H. 2000. Effect of Discontinuous Shales on Reservoir Performance During Horizontal Waterflooding. SPE J. 5 (4): 446–455. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/69751-PA.
Kortekaas, T. F. M. 1985. Water/Oil Displacement Characteristics in Crossbedded Reservoir Zones. SPE J. 25 (6): 917–926. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12112-PA.
Lasseter, T. J., Waggoner, J. R. and Lake, L. W. 1986. Reservoir Heterogeneities and Their Influence on Ultimate Recovery. In Reservoir Characterization, eds. L. W. Lake and H. B. Carrol Jr., 545–559. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press Inc.
Lun, L., Dunn, P., Stern, D., et al. 2012. A Procedure for Integrating Geologic Concepts Into History Matching. Paper SPE 159985 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159985-MS.
Milliken, W. J., Levy, M., Strebelle, S., et al. 2008. The Effect of Geologic Parameters and Uncertainties on Subsurface Flow: Deepwater Depositional Systems. Paper SPE 114099 presented at the SPE Western Regional and Pacific Section AAPG Joint Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 29 March–2 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114099-MS.
Nocedal, J. and Wright, S. J. 1999. Numerical Optimization. New York City, New York: Springer.
Por, G. J., Boerrigter, P., Maas, J. G., et al. 1989. A Fractured Reservoir Simulator Capable of Modeling Block-Block Interaction. Paper SPE 19807 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–11 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19807-MS.
Posamentier, H. W. and Kolla, V. 2003. Seismic Geomorphology and Stratigraphy of Depositional Elements in Deep-Water Settings. J. Sediment. Res. 73 (3): 367–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/111302730367.
Pyrcz, M. J., Catuneanu, O. and Deutsch, C. V. 2005. Stochastic Surface-Based Modeling of Turbidite Lobes. AAPG Bull. 89 (2): 177–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/09220403112.
Regtien, J. M. M., Por, G. J. A., van Stiphout, M. T., et al. 1995. Interactive Reservoir Simulation. Paper SPE 29146 presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, 12–15 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29146-MS.
Richardson, J. G., Harris, D. G., Rossen, R. H., et al. 1978. The Effect of Small, Discontinuous Shales on Oil Recovery. J. Pet. Tech. 30 (11): 1531–1537. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6700-PA.
Rossen, C. and Beaubouef, R. T. 2007. Toe-of-Slope Channel Complexes at Buena Vista, Upper Brushy Canyon Formation, Texas, USA. In Atlas of Deep-Water Outcrops, AAPG Studies in Geology 56, eds. T. H. Nilsen, R. D. Shew, G. S. Steffens, and J. R. J. Studlick, 450–456. Tulsa, Oklahoma: American Association of Petroleum Geologists.
Snedden, J. W. Channel-Body Basal Scours: Observations from 3D Seismic and Importance for Subsurface Reservoir Connectivity. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 39 (1): 150–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2012.08.013.
Stephen, K. D., Clark, J. D. and Gardiner, A. R. 2001. Outcrop-Based Stochastic Modelling of Turbidite Amalgamation and its Effects on Hydrocarbon Recovery. Petrol. Geosci. 7 (2): 163–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/petgeo.7.2.163.
Stewart, J., Dunn, P., Lyttle, C., et al. 2008. Improving Performance Prediction in Deep-Water Reservoirs: Learning from Outcrop Analogues, Conceptual Models and Flow Simulation. Paper IPTC 12892 presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 3–5 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/12892-MS.
Sylvester, Z., Pirmez, C. and Cantelli, A. 2011. A Model of Submarine Channel-Levee Evolution Based on Channel Trajectories: Implications for Stratigraphic Architecture. Mar. Petrol. Geol. 28 (3): 716–727. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2010.05.012.
Thomas, J. M. D. 1990. The Movement of Oil Initially Bypassed Behind Stochastic Shale Barriers. In North Sea Oil and Gas Reservoirs II, eds. A. T. Buller, E. Berg, O. Hjelmeland, J. Kleppe, O. Torsæter, and J. O. Aasen, 437–444. London, UK: Graham and Trotman.
Weber, K. J. 1986. How Heterogeneity Affects Oil Recovery. In Reservoir Characterization, eds. L. W. Lake and H. B. Carrol Jr., 487–544. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press Inc.
Weber, K. J. and van Geuns, L. C. 1990. Framework for Constructing Clastic Reservoir Simulation Models. J. Pet. Tech. 42 (10): 1248–1253, 1296–1297. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19582-PA.
Wen, R. 2005. 3D Geologic Modelling of Channelized Reservoirs: Applications in Seismic Attribute Facies Classification. First Break 23 (12): 71–78.
White, C. D. and Barton, M. D. 1999. Translating Outcrop Data to Flow Models, with Applications to the Ferron Sandstone. SPE Res Eval & Eng 2 (4): 341–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57482-PA.
Willis, B. J. and White, C. D. 2000. Quantitative Outcrop Data for Flow Simulation. J. Sediment. Res. 70 (4): 788–802. http://dx.doi.org/10.1306/2DC40938-0E47-11D7-8643000102C1865D.
Yu, B., Cantelli, A., Marr, J., et al. 2006. Experiments on Self-Channelized Subaqueous Fans Emplaced by Turbidity Currents and Dilute Mudflows. J. Sediment. Res. 76 (6): 889–902. http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/jsr.2006.069.