Managing Drilling Wastes: Detoxification of Two Formaldehyde-Releasing Biocides
- Shirin Fallahtafti (Sanjel Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 362 - 367
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Detoxification, Drilling Fluids, Disposal, Biocides, Aquatic Toxicity
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 279 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
An increased awareness of the environmental impact and operational costs associated with freshwater usage and wastewater disposal in energy production has shifted industry interest toward replacing freshwater sources with lower-quality or recycled water in oilfield applications, and has highlighted the importance of addressing toxicity as part of a successful waste-management plan. Poor-quality and recycled waters often contain high concentrations of bacterial assemblages, which can cause operational challenges such as corrosion, slime formation, and souring. Microbial-control agents, such as biocides, are subsequently necessary to manage bacteriological problems. However, these chemicals are highly reactive and can react indiscriminately with biological targets, making their toxicity both a performance metric and an ecological, human-health, and disposal concern. The luminescent-bacteria toxicity test presented in this work, for instance, is a key regulatory parameter in the pumpoff and landspray disposal of drilling fluids in Alberta, Canada. Considering the necessary toxicity of biocides, controlled detoxification following use is a pertinent factor in responsible hazard management. Formaldehyde-releasing agents are the most widely used category of microbial-control additives that slowly and continuously release small amounts of formaldehyde, a toxic environmental pollutant and know human carcinogen. This research evaluated the acute (short-term) aquatic toxicity of two liquid formaldehyde-releasing biocides, identified necessary parameters for their detoxification, measured the resulting change in their toxicity over time, and used regulatory requirements for toxicity testing set by the Alberta Energy Regulator (AER) for drilling-waste management to evaluate the practical relevance of this detoxification to waste-management practices. The additives investigated were a tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate (THPS)-based product, and a 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DMDMH)-based product. Laboratory results suggest that the THPS-based additive was more toxic than the DMDMH-based additive on a percent volume basis, and pH was an important factor in THPS toxicity. Aeration alone decreased the toxicity of DMDMH over the course of the experiment, while a combination of aeration and pH increase were necessary to decrease the toxicity of THPS over the same time period.
This work presents a proof of concept for a relatively simple and cost-effective detoxification of the evaluated additives, highlights the key parameters for this process, and uses toxicity-threshold levels referenced by the AER drilling-waste-management directive to evaluate their application in waste-assessment practices.
|File Size||230 KB||Number of Pages||6|
Abdalla, C., Drohan, J., Rahm, B. et al. 2012. Water’s Journey through the Shale Gas Drilling and Production Processes in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Pennsylvania State University College of Agricultural Sciences Cooperative Extension, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA. http://extension.psu.edu/natural-resources/water/marcellus-shale/regulations/waters-journey-through-the-shale-gas-drilling-and-production-processes-in-the-mid-atlantic-region (accessed 3 March 2015).
AER. 2012. Directive 050: Drilling Waste Management. Alberta Energy Regulator, Calgary (2 May 2012). http://www.aer.ca/documents/directives/Directive050.pdf.
ATSDR. 1999. Toxicological Profile for Formaldehyde. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Washington, D.C. (July 1999). http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp111.pdf.
AZUR Environmental. 1998. Microtox Acute Toxicity Test. Newark, Delaware, USA: AZUR Environmental.
Chervenak, M. C. 2000. The Environmental Fate of Commonly Used Oxidizing and Non-Oxidizing Biocides: Reactions of Industrial Water Biocides within the System. Proc., TAPPI 2000 Environmental Conference, Denver, 6–10 May, ENV00579, 579–594.
Di Giulio, R. T., Benson, W. H., Sanders, B. M. et al. 1995. Biochemical Mechanisms: Metabolism, Adaptation, and Toxicity. In Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, second edition, ed. G. M. Rand, Chap. 17, 23–562. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Taylor & Francis.
Downward, B. L., Talbot, R. E., and Haack, T. K. 1997. Tetrakishydroxymethylphosphonium Sulfate (THPS) A New Industrial Biocide with Low Environmental Toxicity. Presented at the NACE Corrosion Conference, New Orleans, 9–14 March. NACE-97401.
Emeis, D., Anker, W., and Wittern, K. -P. 2007. Quantitative 13C NMR Spectroscopic Studies on the Equilibrium of Formaldehyde with Its Releasing Cosmetic Preservatives. Anal Chem 79 (5): 2096–2100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0619985.
Environment Canada. 1992. Report EPS 1/RM/24, Biological Test Method: Toxicity Test Using Luminescent Bacteria. EPS1/RM/24, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
EPA. 1999. Fact Sheet: Draft National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit to Discharge to Waters of the United States Pursuant to the Clean Water Act (CWA). US Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle, Washington, USA. http://www.epa.gov/region10/pdf/permits/npdes/wa/wa0025577_fs.pdf.
Fernández-Piñas, F., Rodea-Palomares, I., Leganés, F. et al. 2014. Evaluation of the Ecotoxicity of Pollutants with Bioluminescent Microorganisms. In Bioluminescence: Fundamentals and Applications in Biotechnology - Volume 2, first edition, ed. G. Thouand and R. Marks, Vol. 145, Chap. 3, 65–135. Berlin: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43619-6_3.
IARC. 2014. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php (accessed 28 January 2015).
Indorato, A. M., Snyder, K. B., and Usinowicz, P. J. 1984. Toxicity Screening Using Microtox® Analyzer. In Toxicity Screening Procedures Using Bacterial Systems, first edition, ed. F. J. DiCarlo and F. W. Oehme, Vol. 1, Chap. 3, 37–54. New York: Drug and Chemical Toxicology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
ISO 11348-3:2007: Water Quality—Determination of the Inhibitory Effect of Water Samples on the Light Emission of Vibrio Fischeri (Luminescent Bacteria Test)—Part 3: Method Using Freeze-Dried Bacteria. 2007. Geneva, Switzerland: ISO.
Liu, D. and Dutka, B. J. ed. 1984. Toxicity Screening Procedures Using Bacterial Systems, first edition, Vol. 1. New York: Drug and Chemical Toxicology, Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Masters, A. L. 2004. A Review of Methods for Detoxification and Neutralization of Formalin in Water. North American Journal of Aquaculture 66 (4): 325–333. http://dx.doi.org/10.1577/a03-060.1.
McDonnell, G. and Russell, A. D. 1999. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 12 (1): 147–179.
National Competent Authorities Poland. 2010. Competent Authority Report: Poland—DMDM Hysantoin, CAS-No.: 6440-58-0. Government of Poland.
National Toxicology Program. 2011. Report on Carcinogens: twelfth edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: National Toxicology Program, Washington, D.C.
Nicot, J. -P. 2009. Assessment of Industry Water-Use in the Barnett Shale Gas Play (Fort Worth Basin). Gulf Coast Association of Geological Societies Transactions 59: 539–552.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2002. Screening Information Data Set Formaldehyde. Paris: United Nations Environment Programme Publications.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2008. Screening Information Data Set Initial Assessment Profile. Paris: United Nations Environment Programme Publications.
Williams, T. M. and Cooper, L. E. 2014. The Environmental Fate of Oil and Gas Biocides: A Review. Presented at the NACE Corrosion Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 9–13 March. NACE-2014-3876.