New Insights on the Effect of Oil Saturation on the Optimal Acid-Injection Rate in Carbonate Acidizing
- Rahul Kumar (Texas A&M University) | Jia He (Texas A&M University) | Mohammed Bataweel (Saudi Aramco) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- June 2018
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 969 - 984
- 2018.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- regaular HCl, acidizing, wormhole, carbonate formations, residual oil
- 10 in the last 30 days
- 246 since 2007
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The optimal injection rate for wormhole propagation and face dissolution at low injection rates during carbonate matrix acidizing is well-established. However, little research is documented on the subject of how the presence of oil affects this process. This study demonstrates the impact of oil saturation on wormhole characteristics while acidizing reservoir and outcrop cores under reservoir conditions (200°F).
Coreflood experiments at flow rates ranging from 0.5 to 20 cm3/min were performed to determine the optimal acid-injection rate for wormhole propagation when acidizing homogeneous limestone reservoir cores, low-permeability Indiana limestone cores, and homogeneous dolomite cores with dimensions of a 3- and 6-in. length and a 1.5-in. diameter. The experimental work involved acidizing cores saturated with water, oil, and waterflood residual oil by use of 15-wt% regular hydrochloric acid (HCl). The viscosity of the crude oil used was 3.8 cp at 200°F. Computed-chromatography (CT) scans enabled the characterization of wormholes through the cores. The concentrations of the calcium and magnesium ions in core effluent samples were measured with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and the effluent samples were titrated to determine the concentration of the acid.
At injection rates of 0.5 to 20 cm3/min, 15-wt% HCl was effective in creating wormholes with minimal branches for cores with residual oil saturation (ROS). Compared with brine- and oil-saturated cores, those at ROS took less acid volume to breakthrough. In addition, the efficiency of regular acid improved with increased acid-injection rates in the presence of residual oil. A decrease in the acid pore volume (PV) to breakthrough for oil-saturated cores was observed at high acid-injection rates, which could be attributed to viscous fingering of acid through oil. Unlike brine-saturated and oil-saturated cores, cores at ROS showed no face dissolution at low acid-injection rates. The conclusions of this work highlight the impact of oil saturation on matrix characteristics while acidizing carbonate rocks.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||16|
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