A Mechanistic Integrated Geochemical and Chemical-Flooding Tool for Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Floods
- Aboulghasem Kazemi Nia Korrani (The University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (The University of Texas at Austin) | Mojdeh Delshad (The University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 32 - 54
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- ASP, Modeling, Mechanistic, Chemical flooding
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 650 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Mechanistic simulation of alkaline/surfactant/polymer (ASP) flooding considers chemical reactions between the alkali and the oil to form in-situ soap and reactions between the alkali and the minerals and brine. A comprehensive mechanistic modeling of such process remains a challenge, mainly caused by the complicated ASP phase behavior and the complexity of geochemical reactions that occur in the reservoir. Because of the lack of the microemulsion phase and/or lack of reactions that may lead to the consumption of alkali and resulting lag in the pH, a simplified ASP phase behavior is often used.
A state-of-the-art geochemical package, IPhreeqc, of the United States Geological Survey was coupled with UTCHEM, an in-house research chemical-flooding reservoir simulator developed at The University of Texas at Austin (UT), for a robust, flexible, and accurate integrated tool to mechanistically model ASP floods. UTCHEM has a comprehensive three-phase (water, oil, microemulsion) flash package for the mixture of surfactant and soap as a function of salinity, temperature, and cosolvent concentration.
Through this integrated tool, we are able to simulate homogeneous and heterogeneous (mineral dissolution/precipitation), irreversible, surface complexation, and ion exchange reactions under nonisothermal, nonisobaric, and both local-equilibrium and kinetic conditions. Italic words are defined in Appendix A. IPhreeqc has rich databases of chemical species and also the flexibility to include the alkaline reactions required for modeling ASP floods. Hence, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, the important aspects of ASP flooding are considered.
An algorithm is presented for modeling the geochemistry in an implicit-in-pressure-and-explicit-in-concentration solution algorithm. Finally, we show how to apply the integrated tool, UTCHEM-IPHreeqc, to match three different reaction-related chemical-flooding processes: ASP flooding in an acidic active crude oil, ASP flooding in a nonacidic crude oil, and alkaline/cosolvent/polymer flooding.
NOTE: UTCHEM-EQBATCH input data after waterflooding are available in OnePetro as a digital appendix. See the Supporting information section on this page. The actual input files are available upon request from SPE. Email firstname.lastname@example.org, and make sure to reference the paper number and title in the subject line.
|File Size||3 MB||Number of Pages||23|
Abate, J., Wang, P., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2001. Parallel Compositional Reservoir Simulation on Clusters ff PCs. International J. High-Performance Computing Applications 15 (1): 13–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109434200101500102.
Al-Hashim, H. S., Obiora, V., Al-Yousef, H. Y. et al. 1996. Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Formulation for Saudi Arabian Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 21–24 April. SPE-35353-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35353-MS.
Appelo, C. A. J. and Rolle, M. 2010. PHT3D: A Reactive Multicomponent Transport Model for Saturated Porous Media. Groundwater48 (5): 627–-632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6584.2010.00732.x.
Austad, T., Strand, S., Madland, M. V. et al. 2008. Seawater in Chalk: An EOR and Compaction Fluid. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 648–654.SPE-118431-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/118431-PA.
Barney, B. 2009. Message Passing Interface (MPI). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, https://computing. llnl. gov/tutorials/mpi/ (available online, 2010).
Barrodale, I. and Roberts, F. D. K. 1980. Algorithm 552: Solution of the Constrained I 1 Linear Approximation Problem [F4]. ACM Trans. on Mathematical Software (TOMS) 6 (2), 231–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/355887.355896.
Bhuyan, D. 1989. Development of an Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Compositional Reservoir Simulator. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (December 1989).
Borkovec, M. and Westall, J. 1983. Solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation for Surface Excesses of Ions in the Diffuse Layer at the Oxide-Electrolyte Interface. J. Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry 150 (1): 325–337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0728(83)80214-9.
Charlton, S. R. and Parkhurst, D. L. 2011. Modules On the basis ofthe Geochemical Model PHREEQC for Use in Scripting and Programming Languages. Computers & Geosciences 37 (10): 1653–1663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2011.02.005.
Cohen, S. D. and Hindmarsh, A. C. 1996. CVODE, A Stiff/Nonstiff ODE Solver in C. Computers in Physics 10 (2): 138.
Davies, C. W. 1962. Ion Association, p. 190. London: Butterworths.
Davis, J. A. and Kent, D. B. 1990. Surface Complexation Modeling in Aqueous Geochemistry. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry 23 (1): 177–260.
Debye, P. and Huckel, E. 1954. Translated from Physikalische Zeitschrift, 24(q), 1923, pages 185–206. The Collected Papers of Peter JW Debye, 217.
Delshad, M., Pope, G. A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1996. A Compositional Simulator for Modeling Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation, 1 Formulation. J. Contaminant Hydrology 23 (4): 303–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0169-7722(95)00106-9.
Delshad, M., Han, C., Veedu, F. et al. 2013. A Simplified Model for Simulations of Alkaline–Surfactant–Polymer Floods. J. Petrol. Sci. & Eng. 108: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2013.04.006.
De Lucia, M. and Kühn, M. 2013. Coupling R and PHREEQC: An Interactive and Extensible Environment for Efficient Programming of Geochemical Models. In EGU General Assembly Conference Abstracts, Vol. 15, p. 9719.
Deutsch, W. J. 1997. Groundwater Geochemistry: Fundamentals and Applications to Contamination. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
Dzombak, D. A. and Morel, F. M. M. 1990. Surface Complexation Modeling—Hydrous Ferric Oxide. New York: John Wiley.
Elakneswaran, Y. and Ishida, T. 2014. Development and Verification of an Integrated Physicochemical and Geochemical Modelling Framework for Performance Assessment of Cement-Based Materials. J. Advanced Concrete Technology 12 (4): 111–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.3151/jact.12.9.
Farajzadeh, R., Matsuura, T., van Batenburg, D. et al. 2012. Detailed Modeling of the Alkali/Surfactant/Polymer (ASP) Process by Coupling a Multipurpose Reservoir Simulator to the Chemistry Package PHREEQC. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (4): 423–435. SPE-143671-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143671-PA.
Farajzadeh, R., Ameri, A., Faber, M. J. et al. 2013. Effect of Continuous, Trapped, and Flowing Gas on Performance of Alkaline Surfactant Polymer (ASP) Flooding. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2–4 July. SPE-165238-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165238-MS.
Fathi, S. J., Austad, T., and Strand, S. 2012. Water-Based Enhanced Oil recovery (EOR) by “Smart Water” in Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 16–18 April. SPE-154570-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154570-MS.
Fortenberry, R. P. 2013. Experimental Demonstration and Improvement of Chemical EOR Techniques in Heavy Oils. MS thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (May 2013).
Fortenberry, R. P., Kim, D. H., Nizamidin, N. et al. 2013. Use of Co-Solvents to Improve Alkaline-Polymer Flooding. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166478-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166478-MS.
Ghasemi Doroh, M. 2012. Development and Application of a Parallel Compositional Reservoir Simulator. MS thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (August 2012).
Goudarzi, A., Delshad, M., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2013. A Critical Assessment of Several Reservoir Simulators for Modeling Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery Processes. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 18–20 February. SPE-163578-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163578-MS.
Goudarzi, A., Delshad, M., Mohanty, K. K. et al. 2015. Surfactant Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonates: Experiments and Modeling of Different Matrix Dimensions. J. Petrol. Sci. & Eng. 125: 136–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2014.11.008.
Green, D. W. and Willhite, G. P. 1998. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Richardson, Texas: Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Havre, T. E., Sjöblom, J., and Vindstad, J. E. 2003. Oil/Water-Partitioning and Interfacial Behavior of Naphthenic Acids. J. Dispersion Sci. & Technology 24 (6): 789–801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/DIS-120025547.
Hiorth, A., Cathles, L. M., Kolnes, J. et al. 2008. A Chemical Model for the Seawater-CO2-Carbonate System–Aqueous and Surface Chemistry. Presented at the Wettability Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 29 October–2 November. SCA2008-18.
Hirasaki, G. and Zhang, D. L. 2004. Surface Chemistry of Oil Recovery From Fractured, Oil-Wet, Carbonate Formations. SPE J. 9 (2): 151–162. SPE-88365-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88365-PA.
Huber, P., Nivelon, S., Ottenio, P. et al. 2012. Coupling a Chemical Reaction Engine With a Mass Flow Balance Process Simulation for Scaling Management in Papermaking Process Waters. Industrial & Eng. Chemistry Research 52 (1): 421-429. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie300984y.
Huh, C. 1979. Interfacial tensions and solubilizing ability of a microemulsion phase that coexists with oil and brine. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 71 (2): 408–426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(79)90249-2.
Jackson, A. C. 2006. Experimental Study of the Benefits of Sodium Carbonate on Surfactants for Enhanced Oil Recovery. MS thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (December 2006).
Jang, S. H., Liyanage, P. J., Lu, J. et al. 2014. Microemulsion Phase Behavior Measurements Using Live Oils at High Temperature and Pressure. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA. 12–16 April. SPE-169169-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169169-MS.
Kon, W., Pitts, M. J., and Surkalo, H. 2002. Mature Waterfloods Renew Oil Production by Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Lexington, Kentucky, USA, 23–26 October. SPE-78711-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78711-MS.
Korrani, A. K. N., Sepehrnoori, K., and Delshad, M. 2013. A Novel Mechanistic Approach for Modeling Low-Salinity Water Injection. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166523-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166523-MS.
Korrani, A. K. N. 2014. Mechanistic Modeling of Low-Salinity Water Injection. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (December 2014) (available at: http://pge.utexas.edu/images/pdfs/theses14/Korrani2014.pdf).
Korrani, A. K. N., Jerauld, G. R., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014a. Coupled Geochemical-Based Modeling of Low-Salinity Waterflooding. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 12–16 April. SPE-169115-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169115-MS.
Korrani, A. K. N., Sepehrnoori, K., and Delshad, M. 2014b. A Comprehensive Geochemical-Based Approach to Quantify the Scale Problems. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 26–28 February. SPE-168196-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168196-MS.
Lashgari, H., Delshad, M., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 2014a. Development of Electrical Joule’s Heating Simulation for Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10–12 June. SPE-170173-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170173-MS.
Lashgari, H., Lotfollahi, M., Delshad, M. et al. 2014b. Steam-Surfactant-Foam Modeling in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference-Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10–12 June. SPE-170178-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/170178-MS.
Le Chatelier, H. L. 1884. Comptes Rendus 99: 786–789.
Liu, S. 2007. Alkaline Surfactant Polymer Enhanced Oil recovery Process. PhD dissertation, Rice University, Houston, Texas (December 2007).
Liu, S., Zhang, D., Yan, W. et al. 2008. Favorable Attributes of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding. SPE J. 13 (1): 5–16. SPE-99744-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99744-PA.
Luo, H., Al-Shalabi, E. W., Delshad, M. et al. 2015. A Robust Geochemical Simulator to Model Improved Oil Recovery Methods. Presented at the SPE Reservoir Simulation Symposium, Houston, Texas, USA, 23–25 February. SPE-173211-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/173211-MS.
Mohammadi, H. 2008. Mechanistic Modeling, Design, and Optimization of Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Flooding. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (December 2008).
Mohammadi, H., Delshad, M., and Pope, G. A. 2009. Mechanistic Modeling of Alkaline/Surfactant/Polymer Floods. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (4): 518–527. SPE-110212-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110212-PA.
Mohan, K. 2009. Alkaline Surfactant Flooding for Tight Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, 4–7 October. SPE-129516-STU-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129516-STU-MS.
Monk, P. M. 2008. Physical Chemistry: Understanding Our Chemical World. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Müller, M., Parkhurst, D. L., and Charlton, S. R. 2011. Programming PHREEQC Calculations With C++ and Python—A Comparative Study. EXCHANGE, 1, 40. Pages 632–636.
Nardi, A., de Vries, L. M., Trinchero, P. et al. 2012. Coupling Multiphysics with Geochemistry, The Comsol-PhreeqC Interface: a Powerful Tool for Reactive Transport. Proc., 2012 European COMSOL Conference, Milan, Italy, 10–12 October.
Nardi, A., Idiart, A., Trinchero, P. et al. 2014. Interface COMSOL-PHREEQC (iCP), an Efficient Numerical Framework for the Solution of Coupled Multiphysics and Geochemistry. Computers & Geosci. 69: 10–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2014.04.011.
Nelson, R. C., Lawson, J. B., Thigpen, D. R. et al. 1984. Cosurfactant-Enhanced Alkaline Flooding. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 15–18 April. SPE-12672-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12672-MS.
Parkhurst, D. L., Thorstenson, D. C., and Plummer, L. N. 1980. PHREEQE: A Computer Program for Geochemical Calculations. Water-Resources Investigations. Report 80-96, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, USA (November 1980).
Parkhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J. 1999. User’s Guide to PHREEQC (Version 2): A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations.
Parkhurst, D. L. and Appelo, C. A. J. 2013. Description of Input and Examples for PHREEQC Version 3—A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-reaction, One-dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations.
Peru, D. A. and Lorenz, P. B. 1990. Surfactant-Enhanced Low-pH Alkaline Flooding. SPE Res Eval & Eng. 5 (3): 327–332. SPE-17117-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/17117-PA.
Saad, N. 1989. Field-Scale Simulation of Chemical Flooding. PhD dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (August 1989).
Sheng, J. J. 2013. A Comprehensive Review of Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer (ASP) Flooding. Presented at the SPE Western Regional and AAPG Pacific Section Meeting 2013 Joint Technical Conference, Monterey, California, USA, 19–25 April. SPE-165358-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165358-MS.
Song, W., Yang, C., Han, D. et al. 1995. Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Combination Flooding for Improving Recovery of the Oil With High Acid Value. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, China, 14–17 November. SPE-29905-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29905-MS.
Strand, S., Austad, T., Puntervold, T. et al. 2008. “Smart Water” for Oil Recovery From Fractured Limestone: A Preliminary Study. Energy & Fuels 22 (5): 3126–3133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef800062n.
Sundstrom, E. A. 2011. Impact of Rock-Fluid and Fluid-Fluid Interaction in Chemical Flooding. MS thesis, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming (August 2011).
TACC (Texas Advanced Computing Center). 2014. https://www.tacc.utexas.edu/user-services/user-guides/lonestar-user-guide.
Tavassoli, S., Lu, J., Pope, G. A. et al. 2014a. Investigation of the Critical Velocity Required for a Gravity-Stable Surfactant Flood. SPE J. 19 (5). SPE-163624-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163624-PA.
Tavassoli, S., Pope, G., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2014b. Frontal-Stability Analysis of Surfactant Floods. Society of Petroleum Engineers. SPE J. Preprint. SPE-169118-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169118-PA.
Truesdell, A. H. and Jones, B. F. 1974. WATEQ, A Computer Program for Calculating Chemical Equilibria of Natural Waters (p. 73). Washington, DC: US Department of the Interior, Geological Survey.
UTCHEM Technical Documentation 9. 2000. The University of Texas at Austin.
UTCHEM User’s Guide 7. 2011. The University of Texas at Austin.
Wang, W. and Gu, Y. 2003. Detection and Reuse of the Produced Chemicals in Alkaline-Surfactant-Polymer Floods. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, USA, 5–8 October. SPE-84075-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84075-MS.
Weerasooriya, U. P. and Pope, G. A. 2011. Surfactant-Less Alkaline-Polymer Formulations for Recovering Reactive Crude Oil. US Patent Application 13/115,433.
Wei, L. 2011. Interplay of Capillary, Convective Mixing and Geochemical Reactions for Long-Term CO2 Storage in Carbonate Aquifers. First Break 29 (1).
Wei, L. 2012. Sequential Coupling of Geochemical Reactions With Reservoir Simulations for Waterflood and EOR Studies. SPE J. 17 (2): 469–484. SPE-138037-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138037-PA.
Wissmeier, L. and Barry, D. A. 2011. Simulation Tool for Variably Saturated Flow With Comprehensive Geochemical Reactions in Two- and Three-Dimensional Domains. Environmental Modelling & Software 26 (2): 210–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envsoft.2010.07.005.
Xu, H. 2012. Potential for Non-Thermal Cost-Effective Chemical Augmented Waterflood for Producing Viscous oils. MS thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (December 2012).
Xu, H., Kim, D. H., and Delshad, M. 2013. Potential for Non-thermal Cost-effective Chemical Augmented Waterflood for Producing Viscous Oils. Presented at the SPE Western Regional and AAPG Pacific Section Meeting 2013 Joint Technical Conference, Monterey, California, USA, 19–25 April. SPE-165350-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165350-MS.
Yeh, G. T. and Tripathi, V. S. 1989. A Critical Evaluation of Recent Developments in Hydrogeochemical Transport Models of Reactive Multichemical Components. Water Resources Research 25 (1): 93–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/WR025i001p00093.
Zhu, C. and Anderson, G. 2002. Environmental Applications of Geochemical Modeling. 393 pp., Cambridge University Press.