Evolution of Frac-Pack Design and Completion Procedures for High-Permeability Gas Wells in Subsea Service
- Vibhas Jagdish Pandey (ConocoPhillips Company) | Robert C. Burton (ConocoPhillips Company) | Manabu Nozaki (ConocoPhillips Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2015
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 179 - 194
- 2015.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- offshore frac-pack, non-Darcy effects, sand control, high permeability gas wells, offshore completion skin
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 457 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Frac-pack techniques were used in a recent subsea well-completion campaign. The sandstone layers that were targeted for completion are present generally in shallow gas reservoirs, with depths ranging from 2,000- to 4,500-ft (609.60- to 1371.60-m) true vertical depth subsea, and exhibit a varying degree of consolidation. Core data show that deeper pay intervals predominantly comprise fine-grained, poorly consolidated sandstones with good porosity development and permeabilities in the range of 100 to more than 1,000 md. These sand layers are often separated by shales and claystones. In contrast, the targeted sandstone layers in shallower intervals consist mostly of more-consolidated rock, with lower permeabilities in the range of 5 to 50 md. Up to eight sand intervals are targeted in each well.
The subsea environment posed a challenge for well-completion design because of the multilayered completion strategy that was required to drain several of the pay units effectively in each well. Multizone frac-pack completions consisting of isolation packers and sand-control screens with separate pumping and production sleeves were used to provide sand control. An inner string of additional isolation seals, gauges, and intelligent control valves was run to provide zone-specific monitoring and production control.
The initial well-completion work resulted in high skin values during production. A review of the post-stimulation data helped to identify the shortcomings in the designs and completion procedures. As a result, changes were made in the completion procedures, and frac-pack designs were tailored to suit the purposes. When these changes were implemented in subsequent wells, an improvement in well performance was seen, mostly in the form of reduced skin.
This paper details this evolution, including favorable modification of completion procedures and the changes in pump schedule, treatment planning, and delivery methods during the frac-pack campaign. The benefit of adopting such an approach through the use of the methods and techniques implemented in this campaign can be applied to similar fields under development.
|File Size||4 MB||Number of Pages||16|
Ayoub, J. A., Kirksey, J. M., Malone, B. P. et al. 1992. Hydraulic Fracturing Of Soft Formations in the Gulf Coast. Presented at the SPE Formation Damage Control Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 26–27 February. SPE-23805-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23805-MS.
Burton, R. C. 1999. Use of Perforation-Tunnel Permeability To Assess Cased Hole Gravelpack Performance. SPE Drill & Compl 14 (4): 235–239. SPE-59558-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59558-PA.
Cooke, C. E., Jr. 1973. Conductivity of Fracture Proppants in Multiple Layers. J Pet Technol 25 (9): 1101–1107. SPE-4117-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4117-PA.
Fainstein, R. and Meyer, J. 1997. Structural Interpretation of the Natuna Sea, Indonesia. Presented at the 1997 SEG Annual Meeting, Dallas, 2–7 November. SEG-1997-0639.
Firoozabadi, A. and Katz, D. L. 1979. An Analysis of High-Velocity Gas Flow Through Porous Media. J Pet Technol 31 (2): 211–216. SPE-6827-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6827-PA.
Forchheimer, P. F. 1901. Wasserbewegung durch Boden. Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure 45 (5): 1781–1788.
Fuh, G. -F. and Morita, N. 2013. Sand Production Prediction Analysis of Heterogeneous Reservoirs for Sand Control and Optimal Well Completion Design. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Beijing, 26–28 March. IPTC-16940-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/16940-MS.
Guppy, K. H., Cinco-Ley, H., Ramey, H. J., Jr. et al. 1982. Non-Darcy Flow in Wells With Finite-Conductivity Vertical Fractures. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 22 (5): 681–698. SPE-8281-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8281-PA.
Hodge, R. M., Burton, R. C., Constien, V. et al. 2002. An Evaluation Method for Screen-Only and Gravel-Pack Completions. Presented at the International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 20–21 February. SPE-73772-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73772-MS.
Holditch, S. A. and Morse, R. A. 1976. The Effects of Non-Darcy Flow on the Behavior of Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells (includes associated paper 6417). J Pet Technol 28 (10): 1169–1179. SPE-5586-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5586-PA.
Li, D. and Engler, T. W. 2001. Literature Review on Correlations of the Non-Darcy Coefficient. Presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, USA, 15–17 May. SPE-70015-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/70015-MS.
Lolon, E. P., Chipperfield, S. T., McVay, D. A. et al. 2004. The Significance of Non-Darcy and Multiphase Flow Effects in High-Rate, Frac-Pack Gas Completions. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90530-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90530-MS.
McElfresh, P. M., Khodaverdian, M. F., and Baycroft, P. D. 2002. Frac Packing in Soft Formations: Low Efficiency Fluids Exacerbate Formation Damage. Presented at the International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 20–21 February. SPE-73775-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73775-MS.
Procyk, A. D., Jamieson, D. P., Miller, J. A. et al. 2009. Completion Design for a Highly Compacting Deepwater Field. SPE Drill & Compl 24 (4): 642–658. SPE-109824-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109824-PA.
Tek, M. R., Coats, K. H., and Katz, D. L. 1962. The Effect of Turbulence on Flow of Natural Gas Through Porous Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 14 (7): 799–806. SPE-147-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147-PA.
Vincent, M. C., Pearson, C. M., and Kullman, J. 1999. Non-Darcy and Multiphase Flow in Propped Fractures: Case Studies Illustrate the Dramatic Effect on Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, USA, 26–27 May. SPE-54630-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54630-MS.
Weirich, J., Li, J., Abdelfattah, T. et al. 2013. Frac Packing: Best Practices and Lessons Learned From More Than 600 Operations. SPE Drill & Compl 28 (2): 119–134. SPE-147419-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147419-PA.