Data Analysis and Updated Screening Criteria for Polymer Flooding Based on Oilfield Data
- Laila Dao Saleh (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Mingzhen Wei (Missouri University of Science and Technology) | Baojun Bai (Missouri University of Science and Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- February 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 15 - 25
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4.7 Chemical Flooding Methods (e.g., Polymer, Solvent, Nitrogen, Immiscible CO2, Surfactant, Vapex)
- screening criteria, EOR screening, conformance control, polymer flooding
- 15 in the last 30 days
- 1,162 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) screening is considered the first step in evaluating potential EOR techniques for candidate reservoirs. Therefore, as new technologies are developed, it is important to update the screening criteria. Many of the screening criteria regarding polymer flooding that have been described in the literature were based on data collected from EOR surveys of the Oil and Gas Journal. However, the data quality has not been addressed in previous research. The data set originally contained 481 polymer-flooding projects from around the world, and it contained some problems, including outliers and duplicate, inconsistent, and missing data. To ensure the quality of the data set before running analyses, boxplots and crossplots were used to detect and identify data problems. After detecting outliers and deleting duplicate and severely inconsistent data records, only 250 projects remained. Both graphical and statistical methods were used to analyze and describe the results of the data set. Two major sets of information were given after data cleaning: The first was that the majority distribution of each parameter was shown by use of a histogram distribution, and the second was that the range of each parameter and some of its statistical values were presented by use of a boxplot. Finally, the screening criteria are presented on the basis of these statistics and the defined data parameters. The developed criteria were compared with previously published criteria, and their differences were explained. The developed criteria show that a polymer-flooding project can be successfully applied in a reservoir with a temperature of less than 210°F, an oil viscosity up to 5,000 cp, and gravity lower to 12°API.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Aalund, L.R. 1988. EOR Projects Decline, But Co2 Pushes Up Production. Oil & Gas J.: 30−43.
Aladasani, A. and Bai. B. 2010. Recent Developments and Updated Screening Criteria of Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques. International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, China, 8−10 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130726-MS.
Alan, P.G. 1982. Independents Plunge Into Enhanced Oil Recovery. Oil & Gas J.: 1− 15.
Al-Bahar, M.A., Merrill, R., Peake, W. et al. 2004. Evaluation of IOR Potential Within Kuwait. Paper SPE 88716 MS presented at the Abu Dhabi International Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, 10−13 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88716-MS.
Alvarado, V. and Manrique, E. 2010. Enhanced Oil Recovery—An Update Review. Energies 3 (9): 1529−1575. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en3091529.
Anonymous. 2012. 2012 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J.: 3−4.
Asghari, K. and Nakutnyy, P. 2008. Experimental Results of Polymer Flooding of Heavy Oil Reservoirs. Paper SPE 2008-189 presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 17−19 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2008-189-MS.
Brashear, J.P. and Kuuskraa, V.A. 1978. The Potential and Economics of Enhanced Oil Recovery. J. Pet Tech 30 (9): 1231−1239. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/06350-PA.
Carcoana, A.N. 1982. Enhanced Oil Recovery in Rumania. Paper SPE 10699 presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 4−7 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10699-MS.
Chang, H. 1978. Polymer Flooding Technology Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. J. Pet Tech 30 (8): 1113−1128. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7043-PA.
Chang, H. 2011. Advances of Polymer Flood in Heavy Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 150384 presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12−14 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150384-MS.
Dickson, J.L., Dios, A.L., and Wylie, P.L. 2010. Development of Improved Hydrocarbon Recovery Screening Methodologies. Paper SPE 129768 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24−28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129768-MS.
Donaldson, E.C., Chilingarian, G., and Yen, T. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery, II Processes and Operations. New York City: Elsevier Science Publishing B.V.
Du, Y. and Guan, L. 2004. Field-Scale Polymer Flooding—Lessons Learnt and Experiences Gained During Past 40 Years. Paper SPE 91787presented at the SPE International Petroleum Conference in Mexico, Puebla Pue., Mexico, 7−9 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/91787-MS.
Gogarty, W.B. 1967. Mobility Control With Polymer Solutions. SPE J. 7 (2): 161−173. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1566-PA.
Goodlett, G.O., Honarpour, M.M., Chung, F.T. et al. 1986. The Role of Screening and Laboratory Flow Studies in EOR Process Evaluation. Paper SPE 15172 presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting, Billings, Montana, 19−21 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15172-MS.
Hincapie, R., Alvarez, C., and Vargas, A. 2011. Technical Feasibility of Polymer Injection in Heavy Oil Reservoir BAINF60 and BAMED78—Intercampo Norte—Through Predictive Models. Paper SPE 149621presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12−14 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149621-MS.
Hite, J.R. 2004. Planning EOR Projects. Paper SPE 92006 presented at the SPE International Petroleum Conference in Mexico, Puebla Pue., Mexico, 7−9 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/92006-MS.
Hochanadel, S., Lunceford, M., and Farmer, C. 1990. A Comparison of 31 Minnelusa Polymer Floods With 24 Minnelusa Waterfloods. Paper SPE 20234 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22−25 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20234-MS.
Huh, C. and Pope, G.A. 2008. Residual Oil Saturation From Polymer Floods—Laboratory Measurements and Theoretical Interpretation. Paper SPE 113417 presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 20−23 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113417-MS.
Jennings, R.R., Rogers, J.H., and West, T.J. 1971. Factors Influencing Mobility Control by Polymer Solutions. J. Pet Tech 23 (3): 391−401. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2867-PA.
Kamaraj, K., Zhang, G., Liu, Y. et al. 2011. Effect of Residual Oil Saturation on Recovery Efficiency During Polymer Flooding of Viscous Oils. Paper SPE 22040 presented at the OTC Arctic Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 7−9 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22040-MS.
Koottungal, L. 2010. 2010 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J. 108 (14): 45−60.
Leonard. 1984. EOR Set To Make Significant Contribution. Oil & Gas J.: 59−80.
Leonard. 1986. Increased Rate of EOR Brightens Outlook. Oil & Gas J.: 67−86.
Maerker, J.M. 1975. Shear Degradation of Partially Hydrolyzed Polyacrylamide Solutions. SPE J. 15 (4): 311–322. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5101-PA.
Manrique, E., Muci, V., and Gurfinkel, M. 2007. EOR Field Experiences in Carbonate Reservoirs in the United States. SPE Res Eval & Eng J. 10 (6): 667−686. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100063-PA.
Moe Soe Let, K.P., Manichand, R.N., Suriname, S. et al. 2012. Polymer Flooding a ~500-cp Oil. Paper SPE 154567 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 14−18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154567-MS.
Mogbo, O. 2011. Polymer Flood Simulation in a Heavy Oil Field: Offshore Niger-Delta Experience. Paper 145027 presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 19−21 July. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145027-MS.
Moritis, G. 1992. EOR Increases 24% Worldwide; Claims 10% of US Production. Oil & Gas J.: 32−44, 89−108.
Moritis, G. 1994. EOR Dips in U.S., but Remains a Significant Factor. Oil & Gas J.: 27−77.
Moritis, G. 1996. 1996 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J.: 46−51.
Moritis, G. 1998. 1998 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J.: 64−65.
Moritis, G. 2000. 2000 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J.: 50, 51, 58−60.
Moritis, G. 2002. 2002 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J.: 76−79.
Moritis, G. 2004. EOR Continues To Unlock Oil Resources. Oil & Gas J.: 58−61.
Moritis, G. 2006. 2006 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J.: 52−55.
Moritis, G. 2008. 2008 Worldwide EOR Survey. Oil & Gas J.: 54−57.
Noran, D. 1978. Growth Marks Enhanced Oil Recovery. Oil & Gas J. Annual Production Report (113): 1−11.
Pye, D.J. 1964. Improved Secondary Recovery by Control of Water Mobility. J. Pet Tech 16 (8): 911−916. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/845-PA.
Qiu, Y., Holtz, M., and Yang, A. 2001. Applying Curvature and Fracture Analysis to the Placement of Horizontal Wells: Example From the Mabee (San Andres) Reservoir, Texas. Paper SPE 70010 presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, 15−17 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/70010-MS.
Raney, K., Ayirala, S., Chin, R. et al. 2011. Surface and Subsurface Requirements for Successful Implementation of Offshore Chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery. Paper 21188 presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, Texas, 2−5 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/21188-MS.
Roger, J.H., Blanton, M.L., Kuhlman, M. et al. 2012. Managing Risk in EOR Projects. Paper SPE 152700 presented at the SPE Latin America and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, 16−18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152700-MS.
Sandiford, B.B. 1964. Laboratory and Field Studies of Water Floods Using Polymer Solutions to Increase Oil Recoveries. J. Pet Tech 16 (8): 917−922. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/844-PA.
Seright, R.S. 2010. Potential for Polymer Flooding Reservoirs With Viscous Oils. Paper SPE 129899 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 24−28 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129899-MS.
Shannon, 1980. EOR Methods Help Ultimate Recovery. Oil & Gas J.: 12−16.
Strauss, J.P., Alexander, D.M., Al-Azri, N. et al. 2010. EOR Development Screening of a Heterogeneous Heavy Oil Field—Challenges and Solutions. Paper SPE 129157 presented at the SPE EOR Conference at Oil and Gas West Asia, Muscat, Oman, 11−13 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129157-MS.
Taber, J.J. 1983. Technical Screening Guides for the Enhanced Recovery. Paper SPE 12069 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Francisco, California, 5−8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12069-MS.
Taber, J.J., Martin, F.D., and Seright, R.S. 1997a. EOR Screening Criteria Revisited—Part 1— Introduction to Screening Criteria and Enhanced Recovery Field Projects. SPE Res Eng 12 (3): 189−198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35385-PA.
Taber, J.J., Martin, F.D., and Seright, R.S. 1997b. EOR Screening Criteria Revisited—Part 2— Applications and Impact of Oil Prices. SPE Res Eng 12 (3): 199−206. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39234-PA.
Tang, X., Liu, Y., Bai, B. et al. 2005. Study and Application of Weak Gel Used for an Offshore Oilfield. Paper SPE 2005-076 presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 7−9 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2005-076-MS.
Tyler, N. and Finley, R. 1991. Architectural Controls on the Recovery of Hydrocarbons From Sandstone Reservoirs, SEPM Concepts in Sedimentology and Paleontology, Vol. 3, pages 3−7, SEPM Online Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/csp.91.03.0001.
Vermolen, E.C., van Haasterecht, M., Masalmeh, S. et al. 2011. Pushing the Envelope for Polymer Flooding Towards High-Temperature and High-Salinity Reservoirs With Polyacrylamide Based Ter-Polymers. Paper SPE 141497 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25−28 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141497-MS.
Wang, D., Cheng, J., Wu, J. et al. 2002. Producing by Polymer Flooding More Than 300 Million Barrels of Oil, What Experiences Have Been Learnt?. Paper SPE 77872 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Melbourne, Australia, 8−10 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77872-MS.
Wang, D., Dong, H., Lv, C. et al. 2009. Review of Practical Experience by Polymer Flooding at Daqing. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (3): 470−476. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114342-PA.
Wassmuth, F., Green, K., and Arnold, W. 2009. Polymer Flood Application To Improve Heavy Oil Recovery at East Bodo. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 48 (2): 55−61. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-02-55-PA.
Wassmuth, F., Green, K., Hodgins, L. et al. 2007. Polymer Flood Technology for Heavy Oil Recovery. Paper SPE 2007-182 presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12−14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2007-182-MS.
Wei, Z., Jian, Z., Ming, H. et al. 2007. Application of Hydrophobically Associating Water-Soluble Polymer for Polymer Flooding in China Offshore Heavy Oilfield. Paper 11635 presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, UAE, 4−6 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/11635-MS.
Wenxiang, W., Demin, W., and Haifeng, J. 2007. Effect of the Visco-elasticity of Displacing Fluids on the Relationship of Capillary Number and Displacement Efficiency in Weak Oil-Wet Cores. Paper SPE 109228 presented at the Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 30 October−1 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109228-MS.
Wilkes, J.H. 1981. Injection Well Workover Program in the Levelland Field: A Case History. Paper SPE 9764 presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 1−3 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9764-MS.
Yabin, N., Jian, O., Zhuoyan, Z. et al. 2001. Research on Hydrophobically Associating Water-Soluble Polymer Used for EOR. Paper SPE 65378 presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, Houston, Texas, 13−16 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65378-MS.
Zaitoun, A., Tabary, R., Fossey, J.P. et al. 1998. Implementing a Heavy Oil Horizontal Well Polymer Flood in Western Canada. http://www.ceor-alliance.com.
Zhou, W., Zhang, J., Feng, G. et al. 2008. Key Technologies of Polymer Flooding in Offshore Oilfield of Bohai Bay. Paper SPE 115240 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 20−22 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115240-MS.