Mitigation of the Effects of Condensate Banking: A Critical Review
- Mohammed A. Sayed (Aramco Services Company) | Ghaithan A. Al-Muntasheri (Aramco Services Company and Saudi Aramco)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- May 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 85 - 102
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- use of solvents, wettability alteration, condensate banking, fluorochemicals, gas condensate
- 24 in the last 30 days
- 1,302 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
With production from gas/condensate reservoirs, the flowing bottomhole pressure of the production well decreases. When the flowing bottomhole pressure decreases below the dewpoint, condensate accumulates near the wellbore region and forms a condensate bank. This results in loss of productivity of both gas and condensate, which becomes more serious in intermediate- and low-permeability gas/condensate reservoirs, where the condensate bank reduces both the gas permeability and the well productivity.
Several techniques have been used to mitigate this problem. These methods include:
- Use of solvents and wettability-alteration chemicals to reduce the impact of condensate blockage
- Gas cycling and injection of nitrogen and supercritical carbon dioxide as pressure-maintenance methods
- Drilling horizontal wells, hydraulic fracturing, and acidizing to improve the well productivity
Gas cycling aims to keep the reservoir pressure larger than the dewpoint pressure to reduce the condensation phenomena. The limited volumes of gas that can be recycled in the reservoir can hinder the application of this method. For an ideal gas-cycling process, the volume of the gas injected into the reservoir will be larger than the total gas that can be produced from such a reservoir. Other approaches are the drilling of horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing, during which the pressure drop around the wellbore region is lowered to allow for a longer production time, with only single-phase gas flow to the wellbore. These approaches are costly because they require drilling rigs. Another technique is the use of solvents, which shows good treatment outcomes, but the durability is a questionable issue in these treatments. Moreover, wettability alteration needs to be approached very carefully so as to not cause permanent damage to the reservoir. The use of fluorinated polymers and surfactants dissolved in alcohol-based solvents for wettability-alterations treatments was reported in many studies.
Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages, and can be applied under certain conditions. This paper presents all of these methods, along with their advantages and disadvantages and description of some of their field applications and case studies.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||18|
Abdulwahab, H. and Belhaj, H. 2010. Managing the Breakthrough of Injected Nitrogen at a Gas Condensate Reservoir in Abu Dhabi. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 1–4 November. SPE-137330-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137330-MS.
Adel, H., Tiab, D., and Zhu, T. 2006. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Enhancement of Condensate Recovery, Case Study: Hassi R’Mel South Field, Algeria. Presented at the International Oil Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Cancun, Mexico, 31 August–2 September. SPE-104040-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/104040-MS.
Afidick, D., Kaczorowski, N. J., and Bette, S. 1994. Production Performance of a Retrograde Gas Reservoir: A Case Study of the Arun Field. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference, Melbourne, Australia, 7–10 November. SPE-28749-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28749-MS.
Ahmadi, M., Sharma, M. M., Pope, G. et al. 2011. Chemical Treatment To Mitigate Condensate and Water Blocking in Gas Wells in Carbonate Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (1): 67–74. SPE-133591-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133591-PA.
Ahmed, T. H. 1988. Comparative Study of Eight Equations of State for Predicting Hydrocarbon Volumetric Phase Behavior. SPE Res Eng 3 (1): 337–348. SPE-15673-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15673-PA.
Ahmed, T. 2006. Reservoir Engineering Handbook, third edition. Burlington, Massachusetts: Gulf Professional Publishing/Elsevier.
Ahmed, T., Evans, J., Kwan, R. et al. 1998. Wellbore Liquid Blockage in Gas/condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 9–11 November. SPE-51050-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/51050-MS.
Al-Abri, A. S. and Amin, R. 2009. Experimental Investigation of Interfacial Interactions of Condensate/Brine/SC-CO2 Systems at High Pressure and High Temperature Conditions. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, 7–9 December. IPTC-13082-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/13082-MS.
Al-Anazi, H. A., Pope, G. A., Sharma, M. M. et al. 2002. Laboratory Measurements of Condensate Blocking and Treatment for Both Low and High Permeability Rocks. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77546-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77546-MS.
Al-Anazi, H. A., Okasha, T. M., Haas, M. D. et al. 2005a. Impact of Completion Fluids on Productivity in Gas/Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 16–19 April. SPE-94256-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94256-MS.
Al-Anazi, H. A., Walker, J. G., Pope, G. A. et al. 2005b. A Successful Methanol Treatment in a Gas/Condensate Reservoir: Field Application. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (1): 60–69. SPE-80901-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80901-PA.
Al-Anazi, H. A., Solares, J. R., and Al-Faifi, M. 2005c. The Impact of Condensate Blockage and Completion Fluids on Gas Productivity in Gas/condensate Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 5–7 April. SPE-93210-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93210-MS.
Al-Anazi, H. A., Al-Otaibi, M. A., Al-Faifi, M. et al. 2006. Enhancement of Gas Productivity Using Alcoholic Acids: Laboratory and Field Studies. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24–27 September. SPE-102383-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102383-MS.
Al-Hashim, H. S. and Hashmi, S. S. 2000. Long-Term Performance of Hydraulically Fractured Layered Rich Gas Condensate Reservoir. Presented at the International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, 7–10 November. SPE-64774-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/64774-MS.
Ali, J. K., Butler, S., Allen, L. et al. 1993. The Influence of Interfacial Tension on Liquid Mobility in Gas Condensate Systems. Presented at Offshore Europe, Aberdeen, 7–10 September. SPE-26783-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26783-MS.
Ali, J. K., McGauley, P. J., and Wilson, C. J. 1997. Experimental Studies and Modelling of Gas Condensate Flow Near the Wellbore. Presented at the Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Rio de Janeiro, 30 August–3 September. SPE-39053-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39053-MS.
Aly, A. M., El-Banbi, A. H., Holditch, S. A. et al. 2001. Optimization of Gas Condensate Reservoir Development by Coupling Reservoir Modeling and Hydraulic Fracturing Design. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil Show, Manama, Bahrain, 17–20 March. SPE-68175-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/68175-MS.
Al-Yami, A. M., Gomez, F. A., AlHamed, K. I. et al. 2013. A Successful Field Application of a New Chemical Treatment in a Fluid Blocked Well in Saudi Arabia. Presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Technical Symposium and Exhibition, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, 19–22 May. SPE-168086-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/168086-MS.
Alzate, G. A., Franco, C. A., Restrepo, A. et al. 2006. Evaluation of Alcohol-Based Treatments for Condensate Banking Removal. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 15–17 February. SPE-98359-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98359-MS.
Ataei, A., Hui, W. T., Chan, K. S. et al. 2011. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in a Stacked Tight Gas Condensate Reservoir. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Bangkok, Thailand, 15–17 November. IPTC-15336-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/15336-MS.
Aziz, R. M. 1983. A 1982 Critique on Gas Cycling Operations on Gas/condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the Middle East Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition, Manama, Bahrain, 14–17 March. SPE-11477-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11477-MS.
Bang, V. 2005. Phase Behavior Study of Hydrocarbon-Water-Alcohol Mixtures. MS thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA (May 2005).
Bang, V. 2007. Development of a Successful Chemical Treatment for Gas Wells with Condensate or Water Blocking Damage. PhD thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA (December 2007).
Bang, V. S. S., Yuan, C., Pope, G. A. et al. 2008. Improving Productivity of Hydraulically Fractured Gas Condensate Wells by Chemical Treatment. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 5–8 May. OTC-19599-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/19599-MS.
Bang, V. S. S., Pope, G. A., Sharma, M. M. et al. 2009. Development of a Successful Chemical Treatment for Gas Wells with Liquid Blocking. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 4–7 October. SPE-124977-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124977-MS.
Bang, V. S. S., Pope, G. A., and Sharma, M. M. 2010a. Phase-Behavior Study of Hydrocarbon/Water/Methanol Mixtures at Reservoir Conditions. SPE J. 15 (4): 952–962. SPE-102100-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102100-PA.
Bang, V. S. S., Pope, G., Sharma, M. M. et al. 2010b. A New Solution to Restore Productivity of Gas Wells With Condensate and Water Blocks. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (2): 323–331. SPE-116711-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116711-PA.
Barnum, R. S., Brinkman, F. P., Richardson, T. W. et al. 1995. Gas Condensate Reservoir Behaviour: Productivity and Recovery Reduction Due to Condensation. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 22–25 October. SPE-30767-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30767-MS.
Belaifa, E., Tiab, D., Dehane, A. et al. 2003. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Enhancement of Condensate Recovery in Toual Field Algeria, A Case Study. Presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 23–26 March. SPE-80899-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80899-MS.
Biegel, L. B., Hurtt, M. E., Frame, S. R. et al. 2001. Mechanisms of Extrahepatic Tumor Induction by Peroxisome Proliferators in Male CD Rats. Toxicol. Sci. 60 (1): 44–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/60.1.44.
Blunt, M., Fayers, F. J., and Orr Jr, F. M. 1993. Carbon Dioxide in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Energy Convers Manage 34 (9–11): 1197–1204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-8904(93)90069-M.
Boom, W., Wit, K., Zeelenberg, J. P. W. et al. 1996. On the Use of Model Experiments for Assessing Improved Gas/condensate Mobility Under Near-Wellbore Flow Conditions. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36714-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36714-MS.
Buck, R. C., Murphy, P. M., and Pabon, M. 2012. Chemistry, Properties, and Uses of Commercial Fluorinated Surfactants. In Polyfluorinated Chemicals and Transformation Products, first edition. ed. T.P. Knepper and F.T. Lange, 1–24. Berlin: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Springer Berlin Heidelberg. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21872-9_1.
Buckley, S. E. and Leverett, M. C. 1942. Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in Sands. Transactions of the AIME 142 (1): 107–116. SPE-942107-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/942107-G.
Butula, K. K., Maniere, J. L. J., Shandrygin, A. et al. 2005. Analysis of Production Enhancement Related to Optimization of Propped Hydraulic Fracturing in GAZPROM's Yamburskoe Arctic Gas Condensate Field, Russia. Presented at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Sheveningen, The Netherlands, 25–27 May. SPE-94727-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94727-MS.
Cannan, W. L., Jennings, A. R., Huseini, S. et al. 1992. Increasing Arun Well Deliverability Through Effective Acid Fracturing. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, 24–27 March. SPE-22397-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22397-MS.
Carlson, M. R. M. and Myer, J. W. G. J. 1995. The Effects of Retrograde Liquid Condensation on Single Well Productivity Determined Via Direct (Compositional) Modelling of a Hydraulic Fracture in a Low Permeability Reservoir. Presented at the Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, 19–22 March. SPE-29561-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29561-MS.
Cimolai, M. P., Gies, R. M., Bennion, D. B. et al. 1993. Mitigating Horizontal Well Formation Damage in a Low-Permeability Conglomerate Gas Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium Calgary, 28–30 June. SPE-26166-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26166-MS.
Clark, T. J. 1985. The Application of a 2-D Compositional, Radial Model to Predict Single-Well Performance in a Rich Gas Condensate Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 22–26 September. SPE-14413-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14413-MS.
Dehane, A., Tiab, D., and Osisanya, S. O. 2000. Comparison of the Performance of Vertical and Horizontal Wells in Gas/condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-63164-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/63164-MS.
Donohoe, C. W. and Buchanan Jr, R. D. 1981. Economic Evaluation of Cycling Gas/condensate Reservoirs with Nitrogen. J Pet Technol 33 (2): 263–270. SPE-7494-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7494-PA.
Du, L., Walker, J. G., Pope, G. A. et al. 2000. Use of Solvents to Improve the Productivity of Gas Condensate Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-62935-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62935-MS.
Ebnesajjad, S. 2011. Introduction to Fluoropolymers. In Applied Plastics Engineering Handbook: Processing and Materials. ed. M. Kutz, Amsterdam: PDL Handbook Series, Elsevier.
Ellis, D. A., Martin, J. W., De Silva, A. O. et al. 2004. Degradation of Fluorotelomer Alcohols: A Likely Atmospheric Source of Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids. Environ Sci Technol 38 (12): 3316–3321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es049860w.
Engineer, R. 1985. Cal Canal Field, California: Case History of a Tight and Abnormally Pressured Gas Condensate Reservoir. Presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 27–29 March. SPE-13650-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13650-MS.
Fahes, M. M. and Firoozabadi, A. 2007. Wettability Alteration to Intermediate Gas-Wetting in Gas/condensate Reservoirs at High Temperatures. SPE J. 12 (4): 397–407. SPE-96184-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96184-PA.
Fahimpour, J., Jamiolahmady, M., Severac, R. et al. 2012a. Optimization of Fluorinated Wettability Modifiers for Gas/condensate Carbonate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference, Copenhagen, Denmark, 4–7 June. SPE-154522-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154522-MS.
Fahimpour, J., Jamiolahmady, M., and Sohrabi, M. 2012b. A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Investigation on Application of Wettability Modifiers in Gas/condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–10 October. SPE-159807-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159807-MS.
Fernandez, R., Fahes, M. M., Zoghbi, B. et al. 2011. Wettability Alteration at Optimum Fluorinated Polymer Concentration for Improvement in Gas Mobility. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Vienna, Austria, 23–26 May. SPE-143040-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143040-MS.
Fevang, Ø. and Whitson, C. H. 1996. Modeling Gas/condensate Well Deliverability. SPE Res Eng 11 (4): 221–230. SPE-30714-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30714-PA.
Franco, C. A., Solares, J. R., Asiri, K. S. et al. 2011. Optimization of Conventional Acid Jobs and the Historical Trend Leading to Multi-Stage Acid Fracturing Stimulation to Increase Gas/condensate Productivity in Carbonate Reservoirs in Saudi Arabia. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–28 September. SPE-141339-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141339-MS.
Franco, C. A., Zabala, R. D., Zapata, J. et al. 2013. Inhibited Gas Stimulation to Mitigate Condensate Banking and Maximize Recovery in Cupiagua Field. SPE Prod & Oper 28 (2): 154–167. SPE-151575-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/151575-PA.
Fredd, C. N. and Fogler, H. S. 1998. Alternative Stimulation Fluids and Their Impact on Carbonate Acidizing. SPE J. 3 (1): 34–41. SPE-31074-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/31074-PA.
Fussell, D. D. 1973. Single-Well Performance Predictions for Gas Condensate Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 25 (7): 860–870. SPE-4072-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4072-PA.
Gachuz-Muro, H., Gonzalez Valtierra, B. E., Luna, E. E. et al. 2011. Laboratory Tests with CO2, N2 and Lean Natural Gas in a Naturally Fractured Gas/condensate Reservoir Under HP/HT Conditions. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 19–21 July. SPE-142855-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142855-MS.
Gale, J., Bradshaw, J., Chen, Z. et al. 2005. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. Ed. Metz, B., Davidson, O., de Coninck, H., et al. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom, Cambridge University Press.
Gardner, J. W., Orr, F. M., and Patel, P. D. 1981. The Effect of Phase Behavior on CO2-Flood Displacement Efficiency. J Pet Technol 33 (11): 2067–2081. SPE-8367-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8367-PA.
Garzon, F. O., Anazi, H., Leal Jauregui, J. A. et al. 2006. Laboratory and Field Trial Results of Condensate Banking Removal in Retrograde Gas Reservoirs: Case History. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24–27 September. SPE-102558-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102558-MS.
George, K. S. and Nešic, S. 2007. Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Corrosion of Mild Steel in the Presence of Acetic Acid—Part 1: Basic Mechanisms. Corrosion 63 (2): 178–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.5006/1.3278342.
Gidley, J. L. 1985. Acidizing Sandstone Formations: A Detailed Examination of Recent Experience. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 22–26 September. SPE-14164-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14164-MS.
Gringarten, A. C., Al-Lamki, A., Daungkaew, S. et al. 2000. Well Test Analysis in Gas/condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-62920-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62920-MS.
Hashemi, A., Nicolas, L., and Gringarten, A. C. 2006. Well Test Analysis of Horizontal Wells in Gas/condensate Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (1): 86–99. SPE-89905-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89905-PA.
Havlena, Z. G., Griffith, J. D., Pot, R. et al. 1967. Condensate Recovery by Cycling at Declining Pressure. Presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 24–26 May. PETSOC-67-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/67-04.
Henderson, G. D., Danesh, A., Tehrani, D. H. et al. 1998. Measurement and Correlation of Gas Condensate Relative Permeability by the Steady-State Method. SPE Res Eval & Eng 1 (2): 134–140. SPE-30770-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30770-PA.
Hendrickson, A. R., Crowe, C. W., and Horton, H. L. 1965. Matrix Acidizing of Limestone Reservoirs. Presented at Southwestern API, Division of Production, Dallas, 10–12 March. 906-10-F.
Hinchman, S. B. and Barree, R. D. 1985. Productivity Loss in Gas Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, 22–25 September. SPE-14203-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14203-MS.
Hsu, H. H., Ponting, D. K., and Wood, L. 1995. Field-Wide Compositional Simulation for HPHT Gas Condensate Reservoirs Using an Adaptive Implicit Method. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, 14–17 November. SPE-29948-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29948-MS.
Ignatyev, A. E., Mukminov, I., Vikulova, E. A. et al. 2011. Multistage Hydraulic Fracturing in Horizontal Wells as a Method for the Effective Development of Gas/condensate Fields in the Arctic Region. Presented at the SPE Arctic and Extreme Environments Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 18–20 October. SPE-149925-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149925-MS.
Indriati, S., Wang, X., and Economides, M. J. 2002. Adjustment of Hydraulic Fracture Design in Gas/condensate Wells. Presented at the International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 20–21 February. SPE-73751-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73751-MS.
Jessen, K., Stenby, E. H., Orr, F. M. et al. 2004. Gas Cycling and the Development of Miscibility in Condensate Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (5): 334–341. SPE-84070-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84070-PA.
Joshi, S. D. 2003. Cost/Benefits of Horizontal Wells. Presented at the SPE Western Regional/AAPG Pacific Section Joint Meeting, Long Beach, California, USA, 19–24 May. SPE-83621-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/83621-MS.
Kabir, C. S., Badru, O. T., Eme, V. O. et al. 2005. Assessing Producibility of a Region's Gas/Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9–12 October. SPE-95531-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95531-MS.
Kalaydjian, F. J. M., Bourbiaux, B. J., and Lombard, J. M. 1996. Predicting Gas/condensate Reservoir Performance: How Flow Parameters Are Altered When Approaching Production Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6–9 October. SPE-36715-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36715-MS.
Key, B. D., Howell, R. D., and Criddle, C. S. 1997. Fluorinated Organics in the Biosphere. Environ Sci Technol 31 (9): 2445–2454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es961007c.
Khan, M. N., Siddiqui, F. I., Mansur, S. et al. 2010. Hydraulic Fracturing in Gas Condensate Reservoirs: Successes, Setbacks and Lessons Learnt. Presented at the SPE/PAPG Annual Technical Conference, Islamabad, Pakistan, 10–11 November. SPE-142848-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142848-MS.
Kniazeff, V. J. and Naville, S. A. 1965. Two-Phase Flow of Volatile Hydrocarbons. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 5 (1): 37–44. SPE-962-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/962-PA.
Kokal, S., Al-Dokhi, M., and Selim, S. 2000. Phase Behavior of Gas Condensate/Water System. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1–4 October. SPE-62931-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62931-MS.
Kolbikov, S. V. 2010. Gas/condensate Recovery for the Low Permeable Sands, Gas Cycling Efficiency. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 26–28 October. SPE-136380-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/136380-MS.
Kumar, V., Bang, V. S. S., Pope, G. A. et al. 2006a. Chemical Stimulation of Gas/Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24–27 September. SPE-102669-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102669-MS.
Kumar, V., Pope, G. A., and Sharma, M. M. 2006b. Improving the Gas and Condensate Relative Permeability Using Chemical Treatments. Presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 15–17 May. SPE-100529-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100529-MS.
Kurdi, M., Xiao, J., and Liu, J. 2012. Impact of CO2 Injection on Condensate Banking in Gas Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Saudi Arabia Section Young Professionals Technical Symposium, 19–21 March. SPE-160923-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/160923-MS.
Lehmler, H. -J. 2005. Synthesis of Environmentally Relevant Fluorinated Surfactants—a Review. Chemosphere 58 (11): 1471–1496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2004.11.078.
Lehmler, H. -J. 2008. Production of Fluorinated Surfactants by Electrochemical Fluorination. In Handbook of Detergents, first edition. ed. U. Zoller and P. Sosis, Vol. 142: Part F: Production, Chap. 18. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: Surfactant Science Series, CRC Press.
Leverett, M. C. 1941. Capillary Behavior in Porous Solids. Transactions of the AIME 142 (1): 152–169. SPE-941152-G. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/941152-G.
Li, K. and Firoozabadi, A. 2000a. Phenomenological Modeling of Critical Condensate Saturation and Relative Permeabilities in Gas/Condensate Systems. SPE J. 5 (2): 138–147. SPE-56014-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56014-PA.
Li, K. and Firoozabadi, A. 2000b. Experimental Study of Wettability Alteration to Preferential Gas-Wetting in Porous Media and Its Effects. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (2): 139–149. SPE-62515-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62515-PA.
Linderman, J. T., Al-Jenaibi, F. S., Ghori, S. G. et al. 2008. Feasibility Study of Substituting Nitrogen for Hydrocarbon in a Gas Recycle Condensate Reservoir. Presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, 3–6 November. SPE-117952-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117952-MS.
Liu, Y., Zheng, H., Huang, G. et al. 2006. Improving Production in Gas/Condensate Reservoirs by Wettability Alteration to Gas Wetness. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, 22–26 April. SPE-99739-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99739-MS.
Lucci, A., Demofonti, G., Tudori, P. et al. 2011. CCTS (Carbon Capture Transportation & Storage) Transportation Issues. Presented at the Twenty-First International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Maui, Hawaii, USA, 19–24 June. ISOPE-I-11-162.
Mamora, D. D. and Seo, J. G. 2002. Enhanced Gas Recovery by Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Depleted Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 27 September–2 October. SPE-77347-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77347-MS.
Marir, B. and Tiab, D. 2006. Performance of Horizontal Wells in Gas Condensate Reservoirs: Hassi R’Mel,Algeria. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 3–6 October. SPE-100753-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100753-MS.
Marokane, D., Logmo-Ngog, A. B., and Sarkar, R. 2002. Applicability of Timely Gas Injection in Gas Condensate Fields to Improve Well Productivity. Presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 13–17 April. SPE-75147-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75147-MS.
Martin, J. W., Smithwick, M. M., Braune, B. M. et al. 2003. Identification of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Acids in Biota from the Canadian Arctic. Environ Sci Technol 38 (2): 373–380. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es034727+.
McCain Jr., W. D. and Alexander, R. A. 1992. Sampling Gas/condensate Wells. SPE Res Eng 7 (3): 358–362. SPE-19729-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19729-PA.
McGrail, B. P., Schaef, H. T., Glezakou, V. A. et al. 2009. Water Reactivity in the Liquid and Supercritical CO2 Phase: Has Half the Story Been Neglected? Energy Procedia 1 (1): 3415–3419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.131.
Miller, M. G. and Lents, M. R. 1946. Performance of Bodcaw Reservoir, Cotton Valley Field Cycling Project; New Methods of Predicting Gas/condensate Reservoir Performance under Cycling Operations Compared to Field Data. Proc., Drilling and Production Practice, New York, API-46-128.
Miller, N., Nasrabadi, H., and Zhu, D. 2010. On Application of Horizontal Wells to Reduce Condensate Blockage in Gas Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, 8–10 June. SPE-130996-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130996-MS.
Monger, T. G. and Khakoo, A. 1981. The Phase Behavior of CO2 - Appalachian Oil Systems. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 4–7 October. SPE-10269-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10269-MS.
Montgomery, C. T. and Smith, M. B. 2010. Hydraulic Fracturing: History of an Enduring Technology. J Pet Technol 62 (12): 26–32.
Moradi, B., Tangsiri Fard, J., Rasaei, M. R. et al. 2010. Effect of Gas Recycling on the Enhancement of Condensate Recovery in an Iranian Fractured Gas/Condensate Reservoir. Presented at the Trinidad and Tobago Energy Resources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 27–30 June. SPE-132840-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132840-MS.
Muladi, A. and Pinczewski, W. V. 1999. Application of Horizontal Well in Heterogeneity Gas Condensate Reservoir. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, 20–22 April. SPE-54351-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54351-MS.
Noh, M. H. and Firoozabadi, A. 2006. Effect of Wettability on High-Velocity Coefficient in Two-Phase Gas/Liquid Flow. SPE J. 13 (3): 298–304. SPE-102773-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102773-PA.
Noh, M. H. and Firoozabadi, A. 2008. Wettability Alteration in Gas/condensate Reservoirs to Mitigate Well Deliverability Loss by Water Blocking. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 676–685. SPE-98375-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98375-PA.
Novosad, Z. 1996. Composition and Phase Changes in Testing and Producing Retrograde Gas Wells. SPE Res Eng 11 (4): 231–235. SPE-35645-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35645-PA.
Odi, U. 2012. Analysis and Potential of CO2 Huff-N-Puff for Near Wellbore Condensate Removal and Enhanced Gas Recovery. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8–10 October. SPE-160917-STU. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/160917-STU.
Oldenburg, C. M. and Benson, S. M. 2002. CO2 Injection for Enhanced Gas Production and Carbon Sequestration. Presented at the SPE International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition in Mexico, Villahermosa, Mexico, 10–12 February. SPE-74367-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74367-MS.
Olsen, G. W., Burris, J. M., Ehresman, D. J. et al. 2007. Half-Life of Serum Elimination of Perfluorooctanesulfonate, Perfluorohexanesulfonate, and Perfluorooctanoate in Retired Fluorochemical Production Workers. Environ Health Perspect 115 (9): 1298–1305. PMC1964923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.10009.
Orangi, A., Nagarajan, N. R., Honarpour, M. M. et al. 2011. Unconventional Shale Oil and Gas/condensate Reservoir Production, Impact of Rock, Fluid, and Hydraulic Fractures. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24–26 January. SPE-140536-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140536-MS.
Orr Jr, F. M. and Jensen, C. M. 1984. Interpretation of Pressure-Composition Phase Diagrams for CO2/Crude Oil Systems. SPE J. 24 (5): 485–497. SPE-11125-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11125-PA.
Pabon, M. and Corpart, J. M. 2002. Fluorinated Surfactants: Synthesis, Properties, Effluent Treatment. J Fluorine Chem 114 (2): 149–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1139(02)00038-6.
Panga, M. K. R., Ismail, S., Cheneviere, P. et al. 2007. Preventive Treatment for Enhancing Water Removal from Gas Reservoirs by Wettability Alteration. Presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 11–14 March. SPE-105367-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/105367-MS.
Pedersen, K. S. and Milter, J. 2004. Phase Equilibrium between Gas Condensate and Brine at HT/HP Conditions. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90309-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90309-MS.
Rahim, Z., Al-Anazi, H. A., Kanaan, A. et al. 2012. Productivity Increase through Hydraulic Fracturing in Conventional and Tight Gas Reservoirs - Expectation Versus Reality. Presented at the SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, 23–25 January. SPE-153221-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153221-MS.
Renner, T. A., Metcalfe, R. S., Yellig Jr, W. F. et al. 1989. Displacement of a Rich Gas Condensate by Nitrogen: Laboratory Corefloods and Numerical Simulations. SPE Res Eng 4 (1): 52–58. SPE-16714-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16714-PA.
Restrepo, A., Ocampo, A., Rendon, N. et al. 2012. Wettability Modifier Field Trial in a Sandstone Condensate System: Facts and Gaps of a Promising Technology. Presented at the SPE Latin America and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Mexico City, 16–18 April. SPE-152310-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152310-MS.
Russick, E. M., Poulter, G. A., Adkins, C. L. J. et al. 1996. Corrosive Effects of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Cosolvents on Metals. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids 9 (1): 43–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0896-8446(96)90043-1.
Saadawi, H. 2001. The Development of a Major Gas/condensate Field. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71747-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71747-MS.
Sarkar, R., Danesh, A. S., and Todd, A. C. 1991. Phase Behavior Modeling of Gas/condensate Fluids Using an Equation of State. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 6–9 October. SPE-22714-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22714-MS.
Schechter, R. S. and Gidley, J. L. 1969. The Change in Pore Size Distribution from Surface Reactions in Porous Media. AIChE J 15 (3): 339–350. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690150309.
Schultz, M. M., Barofsky, D. F., and Field, J. A. 2003. Fluorinated Alkyl Surfactants. Environ Eng Sci 20 (5): 487–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/109287503768335959.
Seacat, A. M., Thomford, P. J., Hansen, K. J. et al. 2002. Subchronic Toxicity Studies on Perfluorooctanesulfonate Potassium Salt in Cynomolgus Monkeys. Toxicol Sci 68 (1): 249–264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/68.1.249.
Seto, C. J., Jessen, K., and Orr, F. M. 2007. Using Analytical Solutions in Compositional Streamline Simulation of a Field-Scale CO2-Injection Project in a Condensate Reservoir. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (4): 393–405. SPE-79690-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79690-PA.
Settari, A., Bachman, R. C., Hovem, K. A. et al. 1996. Productivity of Fractured Gas Condensate Wells - A Case Study of the Smorbukk Field. SPE Res Eng 11 (4): 236–244. SPE-35604-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35604-PA.
Siregar, S., Hagoort, J., and Ronde, H. 1992. Nitrogen Injection Vs. Gas Cycling in Rich Retrograde Condensate-Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the International Meeting on Petroleum Engineering, Beijing, 24–27 March. SPE-22360-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22360-MS.
Smith, C. F. and Hendrickson, A. R. 1965. Hydrofluoric Acid Stimulation of Sandstone Reservoirs. J Pet Technol 17 (2): 215–222. SPE-980-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/980-PA.
Sognesand, S. 1991. Long-Term Testing of Vertically Fractured Gas Condensate Wells. Presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 7–9 April. SPE-21704-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21704-MS.
Soroush, M., Hoier, L., and Kleppe, J. 2012. CO2 Injection and CO2 Wag in Dipping Gas Condensate and Oil Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 14–18 April. SPE-154062-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154062-MS.
Stalkup, F. I. 1978. Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding: Past, Present, and Outlook for the Future. J Pet Technol 30 (8): 1102–1112. SPE-7042-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7042-PA.
Strazza, C., Del Borghi, A., and Gallo, M. 2013. Development of Specific Rules for the Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Carbon Capture and Storage. Energies 6 (3): 1250–1265. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/en6031250.
Taheri, A., Hoier, L., and Torsaeter, O. 2013. Miscible and Immiscible Gas Injection for Enhancing of Condensate Recovery in Fractured Gas Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the EAGE Annual Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC, London, 10–13 June. SPE-164934-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164934-MS.
Takeda, T., Fujinaga, Y., and Fujita, K. 1997. Fluid Behaviors around a Well in Gas/condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Kuala Lumpur, 14–16 April. SPE-38062-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38062-MS.
Tang, G. -Q. and Firoozabadi, A. 2003. Wettability Alteration to Intermediate Gas-Wetting in Porous Media at Elevated Temperatures. Transport Porous Media 52 (2): 185–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/a:1023579706686.
Torres, D. E., Sharma, M. M., Pope, G. A. et al. 2010. A Novel Chemical Treatment to Enhance Productivity of Volatile Oil Wells. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, 19–21 October. SPE-138124-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138124-MS.
Trehan, R., Jones, N. D., and Kline, T. 2012. A Novel Approach in Completing Unconventional Tight-Gas Condensate Wells Using Propellant Gas-Assist Perforating and Foam Matrix Acidizing: Case Study. Presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, USA, 21–23 March. SPE-154164-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154164-MS.
Upham, B. L., Deocampo, N. D., Wurl, B. et al. 1998. Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication by Perfluorinated Fatty Acids Is Dependent on the Chain Length of the Fluorinated Tail. Int J Cancer 78 (4): 491–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19981109)78:4<491::aid-ijc16>3.0.co;2-9.
Weber, J. 2000. 3M’s Big Cleanup: Why It Decided to Pull the Plug on Its Best-Selling Stain Repellant. Businessweek (4 June 2000): 96–98, http://www.bloomberg.com/bw/stories/2000-06-04/3-ms-big-cleanup.
Wu, S. and Firoozabadi, A. 2010a. Permanent Alteration of Porous Media Wettability from Liquid-Wetting to Intermediate Gas-Wetting. Transport Porous Media 85 (1): 189–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9554-3.
Wu, S. and Firoozabadi, A. 2010b. Effect of Salinity on Wettability Alteration to Intermediate Gas-Wetting. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (2): 228–245. SPE-122486-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/122486-PA.
Wu, S. and Firoozabadi, A. 2011. Simultaneous Increase in Gas and Liquid Relative Permeabilities and Reduction of High-Velocity Coefficient from Wettability Alteration. J Can Pet Technol 50 (2): 17–23. SPE-144637-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144637-PA.
Yuan, Y. and Lee, T. R. 2013. Contact Angle and Wetting Properties. In Surface Science Techniques, ed. G. Bracco and B. Holst, Vol. 51, Chap. 1, 3–34. Berlin: Springer Series in Surface Sciences, Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
Zheng, Y. and Rao, D. N. 2010. Surfactant-Induced Spreading and Wettability Effects in Condensate Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, 24–28 April. SPE-129668-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129668-MS.
Zheng, Y. and Rao, D. N. 2011. Experimental Study of Spreading and Wettability Effects by Surfactants in Condensate Reservoirs at Reservoir Conditions. Presented at the SPE International Symposium on Oilfield Chemistry, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 11–13 April. SPE-141016-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141016-MS.