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Reservoir Simulation, Ion Reactions, and Near-Wellbore Modelling to Aid Scale Management in a Subsea Gulf of Mexico Field
- Eric Mackay (Heriot-Watt University) | Myles M. Jordan (NalcoChampion) | Oleg Ishkov (Heriot-Watt University) | Oscar Vazquez (Heriot Watt University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 172 - 182
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2 Reservoir Fluid Dynamics, 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation
- inflow control valves, injection, scale management, reservoir simulation, inhibitor placement
- 0 in the last 30 days
- 265 since 2007
- Show more detail
This paper presents the findings of a study into the impact of reservoir flow behavior on the scaling risk at production wells and the options for managing this scaling risk for a deepwater sandstone reservoir in the Gulf of Mexico. One significant feature in this field is that flow takes place through isolated formation layers, and choices made regarding the seawater-injection wells have a great impact, not only on the barium sulfate (BaSO4) scaling tendency, but also on the placement of scale-inhibitor squeeze treatments in the producers. In addition to seawater injection, oil production is supported by the aquifer. The first stage of this study involved identifying the split between connate water, aquifer water, and seawater in the produced brine. This provided data that could be used to calculate the evolution of the scaling risk over the life cycle of each well. The formation brines contained barium, the injection water was full-sulfate seawater, and the relative proportion of brine (the water-production rate, pressure, and temperature conditions) determined the scaling risk. The evaluation of the extent of reactions between the injection water (sulfate) and formation water (barium) from injection to production well can result in a significant reduction in the available barium within the produced water, and hence, the scale risk and scale-inhibitor concentration required for prevention of scale deposition. In this study, because the injection wells were completed with inflow-control valves (ICVs), the opportunity was given to manage the injection split by means of these ICVs, not only to improve sweep efficiency, but also to balance reservoir pressures and make squeeze treatments more efficient. This study will present the squeeze-treatment volumes and estimated treatment lifetimes possible for two scenarios for the water-injection application to this deepwater field. The implications of this type of study will be highlighted in terms of the options that this data will allow an operator to consider before commissioning water injection in these challenging environments.
Bertero, L., Chierici, G.L., Gottardi, G. et al. 1988. Chemical Equilibrium Models: Their Use in Simulating the Injection of Incompatible Waters. SPE Res Eng 3 (1): 288-294. SPE-14126-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14126-PA.
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Hardy, J.A. and Simm, I. 1996. Low sulfate seawater mitigates barite scale. Oil Gas J. 94 (50).
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Jordan, M.M., Sjuraether, K., Collins, I.R. et al. 2001. Life Cycle Management of Scale Control within Subsea Fields and its Impact of Flow Assurance, Gulf of Mexico and the North Sea Basin. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September–3 October. SPE-71557-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71557-MS.
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Mackay, E.J. and Sorbie, K.S. 2000. Brine Mixing in Waterflooded Reservoirs and the Implications for Scale Prevention. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, 26–27 May. SPE-60193-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/60193-MS.
Mackay, E.J., Collins, I.R., Jordan, M.M. et al. 2003. PWRI: Scale Formation Risk Assessment and Management. Presented at the International Symposium on Oilfield Scale, Aberdeen, 29–30 January. SPE-80385-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80385-MS.
Mackay, E.J., Jordan, M.M., and Torabi, F. 2003. Predicting Brine Mixing Deep Within the Reservoir and Its Impact on Scale Control in Marginal and Deepwater Developments. SPE Prod & Oper 18 (3): 210-220. SPE-85104-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/85104-PA.
Mackay, E.J., Jordan, M.M., Feasey, N.D. et al. 2005. Integrated Risk Analysis for Scale Management in Deepwater Developments. SPE Prod & Oper 20 (2): 138-154. SPE-87459-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87459-PA.
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The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.