Filtration in Frac Packs and its Impact on Injector Performance
- Jongsoo Hwang (University of Texas at Austin) | Mukul M. Sharma (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 204 - 215
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 2.4.3 Sand/Solids Control, 2 Well Completion, 2.4.6 Frac and Pack, 6.5.2 Water use, produced water discharge and disposal
- water injection, injectivity, frac-pack, sand control, filtration
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 371 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The filtration of solids in the injection water in a frac pack is the primary factor controlling the injectivity decline in frac-packed water-injection-well completions. The injectivity may decline rapidly or much more slowly, depending on the degree of frac-pack filtration. The widening and lengthening of frac packs and the associated loss of sand control are affected also. However, there are no experimental data available for the filtration coefficient at high velocities that are typical in frac packs. In this research, the filtration coefficients were measured experimentally in high-velocity flows encountered in frac packs. The solid concentrations and pressure drops across proppant-pack sections were measured correlated with earlier filtration theory and permeability-decline models. The filtration coefficients were measured at various flow rates and for different proppant sizes. Our experiments show that at high fluid velocities, the filtration coefficient is significantly lower than that estimated from prior correlations that are based on low-velocity filtration. We have developed new empirical correlations for filtration coefficients at high flow rates in frac packs. The improved filtration coefficients were used as the primary input into a well-injectivity model. The proper estimation of the filtration enabled us to more accurately analyze the impact of injection rates and proppant selection on injector performance (i.e., predict long-term injection-well behavior. The effect of particle filtration in the frac pack, and its effect on injector performance, was captured accurately for the first time. The newly presented empirical correlations coupled with a model for frac-pack growth in the injection well allowed us to estimate accurately the fracture dimensions and the long-term water injectivity of frac-packed injectors. These results can be used for frac-pack design, proppant selection, and specification of injection-water quality.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Barkman, J.H. and Davidson, D.H. 1972. Measuring Water Quality and Predicting Well Impairment. J Pet Technol 24 (7): 865–873. SPE-3543-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3543-PA.
Cushing, R.S. and Lawler, D.F. 1998. Depth Filtration: Fundamental Investigation through Three-Dimensional Trajectory Analysis. Environmental Science & Technology 32 (23): 3793–3801. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es9707567.
Fitzpatrick, J.A. and Spielman, L.A. 1973. Filtration of Aqueous Latex Suspensions Through Beds of Glass Spheres. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 43 (2): 350–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(73)90382-2.
Gruesbeck, C. and Collins, R.E. 1982. Entrainment and Deposition of Fine Particles in Porous Media. SPE J. 22 (6): 847-856. SPE-8430-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8430-PA.
Happel, J. 1958. Viscous flow in multiparticle systems: Slow Motion of Fluids Relative to Beds of Spherical Particles. AIChE Journal 4 (2): 197–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690040214.
Ison, C.R. 1967. Dilute Suspensions in Filtration. London: University of London.
Ives, K.J. 1962. Filtration using Radioactive Algae. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers 127 (3): 372– 385.
Maroudas, A. and Eisenklam, P. 1965. Clarification of Suspensions: a Study of Particle Deposition in Granular Media: Part I— Some Observations on Particle Deposition. Chem. Eng. Sci. 20 (10): 867–873. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(65)80083-5.
Perkins, T.K. and Gonzalez., J.A. 1985. The Effect of Thermoelastic Stresses on Injection Well Fracturing. SPE J. 25 (1): 78–88. SPE-11332-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11332-PA.
Rajagopalan, R. and Tien, C. 1976. Trajectory Analysis of Deep-Bed Filtration with the Sphere-in-Cell Porous Media Model. AIChE Journal, 22 (3): 523–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690220316.
Sharma, M. M., Pang, S., Wennberg, K. E. et al. 2000. Injectivity Decline in Water-Injection Wells: An Offshore Gulf of Mexico Case Study. SPE Prod & Fac 15 (1): 6–13. SPE-60901-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/60901-PA.
Sharma, M.M. and Yortsos, Y.C. 1987. A Network Model for Deep Bed Filtration Processes. AIChE Journal, 33 (10): 1644– 1653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.690331008.
Shumbera, D., Ritter, D., Ellis, R. et al. 2003. Improved Water Injector Performance in a Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Development Using an Openhole Frac Pack Completion and Downhole Filter System: Case History. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 5–8 October. SPE-84416-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84416-MS.
Suarez-Rivera, R., Stenebråten, J., Gadde, P. et al. 2002. An Experimental Investigation of Fracture Propagation During Water Injection. Paper presented at the International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 20-21 February. SPE-73740-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73740-MS.
Suri, A. and Sharma, M.M. 2010. A Model for Water Injection Into Frac-Packed Wells. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (3): 449–464. SPE-110084-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110084-PA.
Suri, A., Sharma, M.M., and Moreno, J. M. M. 2010. Injectivity of Frac-Packed Wells: A Case Study of the Guando Field. Paper presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibiton on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 10–12 February. SPE-125897-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125897-MS.
Tufenkji, N. and Elimelech, M. 2003. Correlation Equation for Predicting Single-Collector Efficiency in Physicochemical Filtration in Saturated Porous Media. Environmental Science & Technology 38 (2): 529–536. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es034049r.
Wennberg, K.E. 1998. Particle Retention in Porous Media: Applications to Water Injectivity Decline. PhD dissertation, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.
Yao, K.-M., Habibian, M.T. and O’Melia, C.R. 1971. Water and Waste Water Filtration. Concepts and Applications. Environmental Science & Technology 5 (11): 1105–1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es60058a005.