Nanosilicas as Accelerators in Oilwell Cementing at Low Temperatures
- Xueyu Pang (Halliburton) | Peter J. Boul (Halliburton) | Walmy Cuello Jimenez (Halliburton)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- March 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 98 - 105
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 4.3.1 Hydrates, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 2 Well Completion
- cement hydration kinetics, isothermal calorimetry, CaCl2, nanosilica, accelerator
- 7 in the last 30 days
- 404 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Accelerators are important cementing additives in deepwater wells where low temperatures can lengthen the wait-on-cement (WOC) time, potentially increasing the cost of operations. The cement-set accelerators traditionally used for shortening WOC times are inorganic salts, such as calcium chloride (CaCl2). These accelerators are known to have the potentially negative side effect of increasing the set-cement permeability. Nanosilicas, on the other hand, can be advantageous compared with conventional cement-set accelerators because they reduce the permeability and increase the mechanical strength of cement-based materials. For this reason, nanosilicas are known to be particularly good candidates as replacement materials for traditional salt accelerators. This study investigates the feasibility of the use of different sizes and aspect ratios of nanosilicas as cement hydration accelerators under low-temperature conditions of 59°F (15°C). The nanosilica activities are herein defined through their comparative advantages with respect to traditional accelerators, as well as through the advantages and disadvantages of the different nanosilicas resulting from their various sizes and shapes. Although hydration of oilwell cement is known to be accelerated by the addition of nanosilica, the effects of nanosilica particle shape on cement hydration kinetics has not been previously investigated. The isothermal calorimetry experiments conducted in this study reveal that just as smaller nanosilica particle sizes increase the cement-set acceleration, so do higher nanosilica aspect ratios. The effects of slurry density on the relative merits of CaCl2 and nanosilicas are also investigated. In regular-weight slurries, the effectiveness of nanosilica acceleration appears to be weaker than that of CaCl2, especially during early ages (< 3 days). In lightweight slurries, the effectiveness of nanosilica acceleration can be much stronger than that of CaCl2, especially when mid- to long-term properties (> 2 days) are considered. Smaller particle sizes and higher aspect ratios enhance the acceleration effect of nanosilicas. The compressive-strength development of lightweight oilwell cements with and without accelerators was also investigated. Lightweight cements accelerated with nanosilica displayed 7-day compressive strengths up to 136% higher than those accelerated with CaCl2.
|File Size||1008 KB||Number of Pages||8|
API RP 10B-2, Recommended Practice for Testing Well Cements, second edition. 2013. Washington, DC: API.
API SPEC 10A, Specification for Cements and Materials for Well Cementing. 2010. Washington, DC: API.
ASTM C1679-09, Standard Practice for Measuring Hydration Kinetics of Hydraulic Cementitious Mixtures Using Isothermal Calorimetry. 2009. West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania: ASTM International. http://dx.doi.org/10.1520/C1679-09.
Bentz, D.P., Peltz, M. A. and Winpigler J. 2009. Early-age Properties of Cement-Based Materials. II: Influence of Water-to-Cement Ratio. J. Mater. Civil Eng. 21 (9): 512–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0899-1561(2009)21:9(512)).
Chalasani, D., Cartledge, F. K., Eaton, H. C., et al. 2009. The Effects of Ethylene Glycol on a Cement-Based Solidification Process. Hazard. Waste Hazard. 3 (2): 167–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hwm.1986.3.167.
Gaitero, J. J., Campillo, I. and Guerrero, A. 2008. Reduction of the Calcium Leaching Rate of Cement Paste by Addition of Silica Nanoparticles. Cement Concrete Res. 38 (8–9): 1112–1118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2008.03.021.
Garrault, S. and Nonat, A. 2001. Hydrated Layer Formation on Tricalcium and Dicalcium Silicate Surfaces: Experimental Study and Numerical Simulations. Langmuir 17 (26): 8131–8138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la011201z.
Gouda, V. K., Mourad, W. E. and Mikhail, R. Sh. 1973. Additives to Cement Pastes: Simultaneous Effects on Pore Structure and Corrosion of Steel Reinforcement. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 43 (2): 293–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(73)90377-9.
Iverson, B., Loghry, R. and Edwards, C. 2011. Rietveld Refinement of an Oil Field Cement Blend. Oral presentation given at Materials Science & Technology 2011, Columbus, Ohio, 16–20 October.
Jalal, M., Mansouri, E., Sharifipour, M., et al. 2012. Mechanical, Rheological, Durability and Microstructural Properties of High Performance Self-compacting Concrete Containing SiO2 Micro and Nanoparticles. Mater. Design 34 (February): 389–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.08.037.
Ji, T. 2005. Preliminary Study on the Water Permeability and Microstructure of Concrete Incorporating Nano-SiO2. Cement Concrete Res. 35 (10): 1943–1947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.07.004.
Jo, B. W., Kim, C. H., Tae, G. H., et al. 2007. Characteristics of Cement Mortar with Nano-SiO2 Particles. Constr. Build. Mater. 21 (6): 1351–1355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.12.020.
Land, G. and Stephan, D. 2012. Nanoparticles as Accelerators for Cement Hydration. Oral presentation given at the Hipermat 3rd International Symposium on UHPC and Nanotechnology for High Performance Construction Materials, Kassel, Germany, 7–9 March.
Ltifi, M., Guefrech, A., Mounaga, P., et al. 2011. Experimental Study of the Effect of Addition of Nano-silica on the Behaviour of Cement Mortars. Procedia Eng. 10: 900–905. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.148.
Nelson, E. B., Michaux, M. and Drochon, B. 2006. Cement Additives and Mechanisms of Action. In Well Cementing, second edition, ed. D. Nelson and D. Guillot, Chap. 3. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science.
Pang, X. 2011. Effects of Curing Temperature and Pressure on the Chemical, Physical, and Mechanical Properties of Portland Cement. PhD dissertation. Columbia University, New York City, New York (XX 2011). http://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:140093.
Pang, X. and Goel, V. 2014. Effect of Mixing Method on the Hydration Kinetics of Oilwell Cement During Early Ages. Paper prepared to be submitted to Advances in Cement Research.
Pang, X. and Meyer, C. 2012. Cement Chemical Shrinkage as Measure of Hydration Kinetics and Its Relationship with Nonevaporable Water. ACI Mater. J. 109 (3): 341–352.
Patil, R. and Deshpande, A. 2012. Use of Nanomaterials in Cementing Applications. Paper SPE 155607 presented at the SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12–14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/155607-MS.
Reinås, L., Hodne, H. and Turkel, M.A. 2011. Hindered Strength Development in Oilwell Cement due to Low Curing Temperature. Paper SPE 149687 presented at the SPE Arctic and Extreme Environments Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, Russia, 18–20 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149687-MS.
Santra, A., Boul, P.J. and Pang, X. 2012. Influence of Nanomaterials in Oilwell Cement Hydration and Mechanical Properties. Paper SPE 156937 presented at the SPE International Oilfield Nanotechnology Conference and Exhibition, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 12–14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/156937-MS.
Senff, L., Hotza, D., Repette, W.L., et al. 2009. Influence of Added Nanosilica and/or Silica Fume on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Mortars and Cement Pastes. Adv. Appl. Ceram. 108 (7): 418–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1179%2F174367609X422108.
Shih, J. Y., Chang, T. P. and Hsiao, T. C. 2006. Effect of Nanosilica on Characterization of Portland Cement Composite. Mat. Sci. Eng. A-Struct. 424 (1–2): 266–274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2006.03.010.
Thomas, J. J., Jennings, H. M. and Chen, J. J. 2009. Influence of Nucleation Seeding on the Hydration Mechanisms of Tricalcium Silicate and Cement. J. Phys. Chem. C 113 (11): 4327–4334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp809811w.