General Turbulent Pipe Flow Scale-Up Correlation for Rheologically Complex Fluids
- D.L. Lord (Halliburton Co., Duncan, Okla.) | B.W. Hulsey (Halliburton Co., Duncan, Okla.) | L.L. Melton (Halliburton Co., Duncan, Okla.)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal
- Publication Date
- September 1967
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 252 - 258
- 1967. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.14 Casing and Cementing, 1.14.3 Cement Formulation (Chemistry, Properties), 4.3.4 Scale, 4.2 Pipelines, Flowlines and Risers, 1.6 Drilling Operations
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A mathematical model d1.20?p/4L = A(8v)s derived from the Blasius equation is proposed to be applicable to turbulent flow through straight cylindrical pipe for time-independent fluids which produce a diameter family of straight parallel lines on a log (d?p/4L) vs log (8v/d) plot or stress-flow diagram. Such a correlation should permit scale-up with data taken from one pipe diameter for Newtonian, inelastic non-Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids, such as dilute polymer fracturing fluids, which produce considerable frictional pressure reductions.
The Newtonian diameter exponent value 1. 20 is shown to be empirically valid for turbulent non-Newtonian flow by application of numerical analysis methods. Multiple regression analysis is applied to a logarithmic linearization of the proposed model. An improved data fit results from further linearization achieved by taking linear terms from a generalized Taylor's series expansion about the multiple regression coefficients.
Extensive experimental data obtained in five pipe diameters with water, sodium carboxymethylcellulose solutions, guar gum solutions, bentonite clay suspensions and calcium carbonate slurries are presented. Except for calcium carbonate slurries, which were investigated rather than time-dependent cement slurries, the fluids studied contain drilling or fracturing fluid additives. The behavior exhibited by these fluids is considered typical of most fluids encountered in drilling, cementing and fracturing operations.
Considerable difficulties have been encountered in predicting turbulent flow pressure drops produced by non-Newtonian fluids flowing through straight cylindrical pipe. Correlations previously presented require extensive experimental data which represent several pipe diameters and a wide flow rate range to estimate the necessary scale-up parameters.1-7 One must implement either elaborate experimental apparatus or spend considerable time and effort to gather the se data. Presented here is a correlation method which should minimize the experimental effort and data analysis normally required by utilizing flow data taken with only one pipe diameter.
Turbulent flow data (up-stream and dawn-stream pressure and volumetric flow rates) were collected for five pipe diameters through operation of a small pipeline system having an electronic data acquisition and digitizing system.
A mathematical model derived from the Blasius equation was utilized to describe the functional relationship between pressure drop and the two independent variables, diameter and average flow velocity. A correlation, which should produce a valid single-pipe scale-up, resulted from a computer-implemented statistical and numerical data analysis for several time-independent non-Newtonian fluids.
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