- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Pressure Evolution and Production Performance of Waterflooding in n-Heptane-Saturated Fired Berea Cores
- Nima Rezaei (Reservoir Engineering Research Institute) | Abbas Firoozabadi (Reservoir Engineering Research Institute)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 674 - 686
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6 Reservoir Description and Dynamics, 6.4 Primary and Enhanced Recovery Processes, 6.4.1 Waterflooding
- Water injection, Coreflooding, End effect
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 183 since 2007
- Show more detail
This work presents experimental results and interpretation of injection pressure and recovery performance of waterflooding in strongly water-wet fired Berea cores saturated with n-heptane. The experiments were conducted at constant injection rate at room conditions, and the effects of injection rate and initial water saturation on the oil-recovery performance and dynamic-injection pressure were investigated. Elements of surprise were observed in the injection-pressure data. The pressure profiles showed four distinct regimes, each governed by capillary or viscous forces. At low capillary numbers (Ca=µ/σ<10-6), capillarity governed two pressure regimes, corresponding to the core inlet and outlet. In the early part of waterflooding, pressure stayed constant for a considerable time before hydrodynamic pressure gradient could overcome the capillary pressure gradient. After viscous forces dominated, a linear increase in injection pressure over time was observed up to breakthrough time. A sudden pressure rise was observed close to breakthrough because of capillary retention at the core outlet. The pressure became constant after the breakthrough when the water- and oil-saturation distributions were stabilized. Changing the injection rate by an order of magnitude in the range from 2.2 to 22.2 pore volumes (PV)/D (equivalent to Ca=10-7 to 10-6) did not appreciably change the oil-recovery performance; similar breakthrough time and final oil recovery were observed. The effect of initial water saturation was also investigated. When lowering the initial water saturation beyond that established in oil flooding, production performance and injection pressure were similar to those of a core without the initial water saturation. The injection pressure at breakthrough was found to decrease with increase of the initial water saturation. Waterflooding was modeled by including the capillary pressure and excellent agreement was obtained with experimental results of production and injection pressure. We find that in the absence of in-situ saturation measurements, the injection pressure is a better variable for tuning the model parameters compared with the production history alone.
Abrams, A. 1975. The Influence of Fluid Viscosity, Interfacial Tension, and Flow Velocity on Residual Oil Saturation Left by Waterflood. SPE J. 15 (5): 437–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5050-PA.
Agbalaka, C., Dandekar, A., Patil, S., et al. 2008. The effect of wettability on oil recovery: a review. Paper SPE 114496 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Perth, Australia, 20–22 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/114496-MS.
Anderson, W. 1987a. Wettability Literature Survey Part 5: The Effects Of Wettability On Relative Permeability. J. Pet. Tech. 39 (11): 1453–1468. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16323-PA.
Anderson, W. 1987b. Wettability Literature Survey-Part 6: The Effects of Wettability on Waterflooding. J. Pet. Tech. 39 (12): 1605–1622. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16471-PA.
Ashraf, A., Hadia, N., Torsaeter, O., et al. 2010. Laboratory Investigation of Low Salinity Waterflooding as Secondary Recovery Process: Effect of Wettability. Paper SPE 129012 presented at SPE Oil and Gas India Conference and Exhibition, Mumbai, India, 20–22 January. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129012-MS.
Atkins, P. and Jones, L. 2007. Chemical Principles: The Quest for Insight. XX, XX: W.H. Freeman & Co.
Bernard, G. 1967. Effect of Floodwater Salinity on Recovery Of Oil from Cores Containing Clays. Paper SPE 1725 presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Los Angeles, California, 26–27 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1725-MS.
Bolås, T. and Torsæter, O. 1995. Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Positive Imbibition Capillary Pressure Curves Obtained from Centrifuge Data. Oral presentation given at the 1995 International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts.
Boynton, R.S. 1980. Chemistry and Technology of Lime and Limestone. New York City, New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Brown, W. 1957. The Mobility of Connate Water During a Water Flood. Trans. AIME 210: 190–195.
Buckley, J. and Liu, Y. 1998. Some Mechanisms of Crude Oil/Brine/Solid Interactions. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 20 (3–4): 155–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00015-1.
Carll, J.F. 1880. The Geology of the Oil Regions of Warren, Venango, Clarion and Butler Counties. Second Geol. Survey of Pennsylvania 3: 263–269.
Catalan, L., Dullien, F. and Chatzis, I. 1994. The Effects of Wettability and Heterogeneities on the Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil with Low Pressure Inert Gas Injection Assisted by Gravity Drainage. SPE Advanced Technology Series 2 (2): 140–149. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23596-PA.
Chalbaud, C., Lombard, J.M., Martin, F., et al. 2007. Two Phase Flow Properties of Brine-CO2 Systems in a Carbonate Core: Influence of Wettability on Pc and kr. Paper SPE 111420 presented at the SPE/EAGE Reservoir Characterization and Simulation Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 28-31 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111420-MS.
Chatzis, I. and Dullien, F. 1983. Dynamic Immiscible Displacement Mechanisms in Pore Doublets: Theory Versus Experiment. J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 91 (1): 199–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9797(83)90326-0.
Chatzis, I., Kuntamukkula, M. and Morrow, N. 1988. Effect of Capillary Number on the Microstructure of Residual Oil in Strongly Water-Wet Sandstones. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (3): 902–912. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13213-PA.
Chatzis, I. and Morrow, N. 1984. Correlation of Capillary Number Relationships for Sandstone. SPE J. 24 (5): 555–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10114-PA.
Chatzis, I., Morrow, N. and Lim, H. 1983. Magnitude and Detailed Structure of Residual Oil Saturation. SPE J. 23 (2): 311–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10681-PA.
Dawe, R., Wheat, M. and Bidner, M. 1992. Experimental Investigation of Capillary Pressure Effects on Immiscible Displacement in Lensed and Layered Porous Media. Transport Porous Med. 7 (1): 83–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00617318.
Dong, M., Dullien, F.A.L., Dai, L., et al. 2006. Immiscible Displacement in the Interacting Capillary Bundle Model Part II. Applications of Model and Comparison of Interacting and Non-Interacting Capillary Bundle Models. Transport Porous Med. 63 (2): 289–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-005-6530-4.
Dong, M., Dullien, F.L. and Zhou, J. 1998. Characterization of Waterflood Saturation Profile Histories by the ‘Complete’ Capillary Number. Transport Porous Med. 31 (2): 213–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006565621860.
Dong, M. and Dullien, F. 1997. A New Model for Immiscible Displacement in Porous Media. Transport Porous Med. 27 (2): 185–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1006580207133.
Douglas J. Jr., Blair, P. and Wagner, R. 1958. Calculation of Linear Waterflood Behavior Including the Effects of Capillary Pressure. Trans. AIME 213: 96–102.
Dullien, F. and Dong, M. 2002. The Importance of Capillary Forces in Waterflooding: An Examination of the Buckley-Leverett Frontal Displacement Theory. J. Porous Media 5 (1): 1–15.
Edmondson, T. 1965. Effect of Temperature on Waterflooding. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 4 (4): 236–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65-04-09.
Fried, A. N. 1954. Effect of Oil Viscosity on the Recovery of Oil by Water Flooding. San Francisco, CA: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines.
Gharbi, R. and Peters, E.J. 1993. Scaling Coreflood Experiments to Heterogeneous Reservoirs. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 10 (2): 83–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(93)90033-B.
Hamon, G. and Vidal, J. 1986. Scaling-Up the Capillary Imbibition Process From Laboratory Experiments on Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Samples. Paper SPE 15852 presented at the European Petroleum Conference, London, United Kingdom, 20–22 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15852-MS.
Hirasaki, G. 1975. Sensitivity Coefficients for History Matching Oil Displacement Processes. SPE J. 15 (1): 39–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4283-PA.
Hirasaki, G. 1996. Dependence of Waterflood Remaining Oil Saturation on Relative Permeability, Capillary Pressure, and Reservoir Parameters in Mixed-Wet Turbidite Sands. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (2): 87–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30763-PA.
Hognesen, E., Strand, S. and Austad, T. 2005. Waterflooding of Preferential Oil-Wet Carbonates: Oil Recovery Related to Reservoir Temperature and Brine Composition. Paper SPE 94166 presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13–16 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94166-MS.
Huang, Y., Ringrose, P. and Sorbie, K. 1996. The Effects of Heterogeneity and Wettability on Oil Recovery from Laminated Sedimentary Structures. SPE J. 1 (4): 451–462. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30781-PA.
Huggett, R.J. 2007. Fundamentals of Geomorphology. New York City, New York: Routledge.
Jadhunandan, P. and Morrow, N. 1995. Effect of Wettability on Waterflood Recovery for Crude-Oil/Brine/Rock Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (1): 40–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22597-PA.
Ju, B.S., Fan, T.L., Zhang, J.C., et al. 2006. Oil Viscosity Variation and Its Effects on Production Performance in Water Drive Reservoir. Petroleum Exploration and Development 33 (1): 99–102.
Kashchiev, D. and Firoozabadi, A. 2003. Analytical Solutions for 1D Countercurrent Imbibition in Water-Wet Media. SPE J. 8 (4): 401–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87333-PA.
Kelley, D. and Caudle, B. 1966. The Effect of Connate Water on the Efficiency of High-Viscosity Waterfloods. J. Pet. Tech. 18 (11): 1481–1486. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1615-PA.
Kennedy, H.T., Burja, E.O. and Boykin, R.S. 1955. An Investigation of the Effects of Wettability on Oil Recovery by Water flooding. J. Phys. Chem. 59 (9): 867–869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/j150531a015.
Kyte, J. and Rapoport, L. 1958. Linear Waterflood Behavior and End Effects in Water-Wet Porous Media. J. Pet. Tech. 10 (10): 47–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/929-G.
Lager, A., Webb, K. and Black, C. 2007. Impact of Brine Chemistry on Oil Recovery. Oral presentation given at the 14th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Cairo, Egypt, 22–24 April.
Leverett, M. 1940. Capillary Behavior in Porous Solids. Trans. AIME 142 (1): 152–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/941152-G.
Ma, S. and Morrow, N.R. 1994. Effect of Firing on Petrophysical Properties of Berea Sandstone. SPE Form Eval 9 (3): 213–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21045-PA.
Mai, A. and Kantzas, A. 2009. Heavy Oil Waterflooding: Effects of Flow Rate and Oil Viscosity. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 48 (3): 42–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-03-42.
McDougall, S. and Sorbie, K. 1993. The Combined Effect of Capillary and Viscous Forces on Waterflood Displacement Efficiency in Finely Laminated Porous Media. Paper SPE 26659 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 3–6 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26659-MS.
Melrose, J. and Melrose, J. 1974. Role of Capillary Forces In Detennining Microscopic Displacement Efficiency For Oil Recovery By Waterflooding. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 13 (4): 54–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74-04-05.
Morrow, N. 1979. Interplay of Capillary, Viscous And Buoyancy Forces In the Mobilization of Residual Oil. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 18 (3): 35–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79-03-03.
Morrow, N., Lim, H. and Ward, J. 1986. Effect of Crude-Oil-Induced Wettability Changes on Oil Recovery. SPE Form Eval 1 (1): 89–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13215-PA.
Morrow, N.R., Chatzis, I. and Lim, H. 1985. Relative Permeabilities at Reduced Residual Saturations. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 24 (4): 62–69.
Morrow, N.R., Tang, G., Valat, M., et al. 1998. Prospects of Improved Oil Recovery Related to Wettability and Brine Composition. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 20 (3–4): 267–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00030-8.
Mungan, N. 1971. Improved Waterflooding Through Mobility Control. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 49 (1): 32–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450490107.
Oseto, K., Al-Amoudi, A. and Suzuki, M. 2006. Comprehensive Approach of Core Analysis to Predict Waterflooding Performance in a Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoir, Offshore Abu Dhabi. Paper SPE 101287 presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 5–8 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/101287-MS.
Parsaei, R. and Chatzis, I. 2011. Experimental Investigation of Production Characteristics of the Gravity-Assisted Inert Gas Injection (GAIGI) Process for Recovery of Waterflood Residual Oil: Effects of Wettability Heterogeneity. Energ. Fuel. 25 (5): 2088–2089. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200098y.
Perkins, F. Jr. 1957. An Investigation of the Role of Capillary Forces in Laboratory Water Floods. J. Pet. Tech. 9 (11): 49–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/840-G.
Pooladi-Darvish, M. and Firoozabadi, A. 2000. Cocurrent and Countercurrent Imbibition in a Water-Wet Matrix Block. SPE J. 5 (1): 3–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38443-PA.
Rapoport, L. and Leas, W. 1953. Properties of linear waterfloods. Trans. AIME 198 (1953): 139–148.
Rezaei, N. and Chatzis, I. 2011. Characterization of Heterogeneities in Porous Media Using Constant Rate Air Injection Porosimetry. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 79 (3–4): 113–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.08.019.
Ruth, D.W., Li, Y., Mason, G., et al. 2007. An Approximate Analytical Solution for Counter-Current Spontaneous Imbibition. Transport Porous Med. 66 (3): 373–390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-006-0019-7.
Ruth, D. and Arthur, J. 2011. A Revised Analytic Solution to the Linear Displacement Problem Including Capillary Pressure Effects. Transport Porous Med. 86 (3): 881–894. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-010-9662-0.
Sharma, M. and Filoco, P. 2000. Effect of Brine Salinity and Crude-Oil Properties on Oil Recovery and Residual Saturations. SPE J. 5 (3): 293–300. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65402-PA.
Shaw, J., Churcher, P. and Hawkins, B. 1991. The Effect of Firing on Berea Sandstone. SPE Form Eval 6 (1): 72–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18463-PA.
Smith, J., Chatzis, I. and Ioannidis, M. 2005. A New Technique to Measure the Breakthrough Capillary Pressure. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 44 (11): 25–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/05-11-01.
Tang, G.Q. and Firoozabadi, A. 2001. Effect of Pressure Gradient and Initial Water Saturation on Water Injection in Water-Wet and Mixed-Wet Fractured Porous Media. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (6): 516–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/74711-PA.
Tang, G.Q. and Morrow, N. 1997. Salinity, Temperature, Oil Composition, and Oil Recovery by Waterflooding. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (4): 269–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36680-PA.
Tianjiang, W., Xiaoheng, Z., Bing, L., et al. 2011. Effect of Wettability of Low-Permeability Sandstone on Waterflooding and ASP Flooding Recovery. Fault-Block Oil & Gas Field 3.
Tie, H., Tong, Z. and Morrow, N.R. 2003. The Effect of Different Crude Oil/Brine/Rock Combinations on Wettability through Spontaneous Imbibition. Oral presentation given at the International Symposium of the Society of Core Analysts, Pau, France, 21–24 September.
Torabi, F., Yadali Jamaloei, B., Zarivnyy, O., et al. 2010. Effect of Oil Viscosity, Permeability and Injection Rate on Performance of Waterflooding, CO2 Flooding and WAG Processes on Recovery of Heavy Oils. Paper SPE 138188 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19–21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138188-MS.
Wang, J. and Dong, M. 2009. Optimum Effective Viscosity of Polymer Solution for Improving Heavy Oil Recovery. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 67 (3): 155–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2009.05.007.
Whitaker, S. 1986. Flow in porous media II: The Governing Equations for Immiscible, Two-Phase Flow. Transport Porous Med. 1 (2): 105–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00714688.
Willhite, G.P. 1986. Waterflooding. Richardson, Texas: Textbook Series, SPE.
Worthington, A. 1978. A Technique for Detecting Incomplete Saturation of Cores. J. Pet. Tech. 30 (12): 1716–1717. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6982-PA.
Wu, S. and Firoozabadi, A. 2011. Effects of Firing and Chemical Treatments on Berea Permeability and Wettability. Energ. Fuel. 25 (1): 197–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef1007984.
Yildiz, H., Valat, M. and Morrow, N. 1999. Effect of Brine Composition on Wettability and Oil Recovery of a Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38 (1): 26–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-01-02.
Yildiz, H.O. and Morrow, N.R. 1996. Effect of Brine Composition on Recovery of Moutray Crude Oil by Waterflooding. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 14 (3–4): 159–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(95)00041-0.
Yortsos, Y. and Fokas, A. 1983. An Analytical Solution for Linear Waterflood Including the Effects of Capillary Pressure. SPE J. 23 (1): 115–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9407-PA.
Yu, C., Li, M., Qiao, G., et al. 2009. Vertically Heterogeneous Reservoir Waterflooding Oil Test. Journal of Southwest Petroleum University (Science & Technology Edition) 31 (1): 84–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.3863/j.issn.1674-5086.2009.01.021.
Zhang, Y., Xie, X. and Morrow, N. 2007. Waterflood Performance by Injection of Brine with Different Salinity for Reservoir Cores. Paper SPE 109849 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11–14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109849-MS.
Zhou, X., Morrow, N. and Ma, S. 2000. Interrelationship of Wettability, Initial Water Saturation, Aging Time, and Oil Recovery by Spontaneous Imbibition and Waterflooding. SPE J. 5 (2): 199–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62507-PA.
Zhou, X.-m., Torsater, O., Xie, X. and Morrow, N.R. 1995. The Effect of Crude-Oil Aging Time and Temperature on the Rate of Water Imbibition and Long-Term Recovery by Imbibition. SPE Form Eval 10 (4): 259–266. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/26674-PA.
Zhou, Y., Li, Y. and Wang, D.P. 2008. Research on Water Flooding Effect Improved by Vectorial Well Arrangement for Reservoirs with Permeability Heterogeneity in Plane. Yantu Lixue (Rock and Soil Mechanics) 29 (1): 135–139.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.