On the Stability of the Edge of a Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Steam Chamber
- Mazda Irani (RPS Energy) | Ian D. Gates (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- April 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 280 - 288
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 548 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a successful thermal-recoverytechnique applied in oil-sand reservoirs in which the viscosity of the oil(bitumen) is typically in the hundreds of thousands to millions of centipoise.For the in-situ production from bitumen reservoirs, bitumen viscosity must bereduced to achieve the mobility required to flow toward the production well.Many factors influence the efficiency and rate at which bitumen is mobilized.The controlling feature of steam-based recovery processes is heat transfer fromthe steam chamber to the formation?the greater the heat flux, the larger theoil volume heated, and the higher the oil-drainage rate. Previous studies havedemonstrated that instability at the steam-chamber edge can enhance heattransfer there by creating limited-amplitude steam fingers that enlarge theheat-transfer area, thus leading to greater thermal efficiency of the recoveryprocess. This, in turn, increases oil production. At this point, stabilitystudies have focused on the instability between steam and oil at the edge ofthe chamber?none has examined the case between steam condensate and oil. In theresearch documented here, the stability between steam condensate and bitumen atthe edge of the chamber is explored. Here, a steam-pressure diffusion equationat the moving chamber interface is derived. the perturbations of the pressureand condensate velocity are substituted into the pressure diffusion equationand Darcy's law to realize a linear-stability equation governing the growth ofdisturbances at the interface. The results show that the stability iscontrolled by moving-interface velocity and reservoir water-phase hydraulicdiffusivity. Also, the results demonstrate that, at typical SAGD-operationconditions, the chamber edge is unstable.
|File Size||924 KB||Number of Pages||9|
Aherne, A.L. and Maini, B. 2006. Fluid Movement in the SAGD Process: AReview of the Dover Project. Paper CIPC 2006-153 presented at the CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 13-16 June.
Akin, S. 2005. Mathematical Modeling of Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage.SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (5): 372-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86963-PA.
Akin, S. and Bagci, S. 2001. A Laboratory Study of Single-WellSteam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Process. J. Petrol. Sci. and Eng. 32: 23-33.
Araktingi, U.G. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 1993. Viscous Fingering in HeterogeneousPorous Media. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1 (1):71-80.
Azad, A. and Chalaturnyk, R.J. 2010. A Mathematical Improvement to SAGDUsing Geomechanical Modelling. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. 49 (10):53-64.
Bennion, D.B., Thomas, F.B., Schulmeister, B. et al. 2006. ACorrelation of the Low- and High-Temperature Water-Oil Relative PermeabilityCharacteristics of Typical Western Canadian Unconsolidated Bitumen ProducingFormations. Paper presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference,Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 13-15 June.
Birrell, G. 2001. Heat Transfer Ahead of a SAGD Steam Chamber: A Study ofThermocouple Data From Phase B of the Underground Test Facility (DoverProject). Paper 2001-88 presented at the Petroleum Society of CIM's CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12-14 June.
Butler, R.M. 1987. Rise of Interfering Steam Chambers. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. 26 ( 3): 70-75.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87-03-07-PA.
Butler, R.M. 1994. Horizontal Wells for the Recovery of Oil, Gas, andBitumen, Monograph Series, Vol. 2, pp. 169-199, Richardson, Texas: SPE.
Butler, R.M. 1997. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen, Calgary,Alberta: Blackbook series, GravDrain Inc.
Butler, R.M. and Stephens, D.J. 1981. The Gravity Drainage of Steam-HeatedHeavy Oil to Parallel Horizontal Wells J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 20 (2): 90-96.
Chalaturnyk, R. 1996. Geomechanics of the Steam-Assisted Gravity DrainageProcess in Heavy-Oil Reservoirs. PhD thesis, University of Alberta.
Chouke, R.L., van Meurs, P., and van der Poel, C. 1959. The Instability ofSlow Immiscible Viscous Liquid-Liquid Displacements in Permeable Media.Petroleum Trans., AlME, 216: 188-194.
Domenico, P.A. and Mifflin, M.D. 1965. Water From Low-Permeability Sedimentsand Land Subsidence. Water Resources Res. 1 (4):563-576.
Edmunds, N. 1999a. On the Difficult Birth of SAGD. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38 (1): 14-17.
Edmunds, N. 1999b. On the Difficult Birth of SAGD. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38 (1): 24.
Edmunds, N.R., Haston, J.A., and Best, D.A. 1989. Analysis andImplementation of the Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Process at the AOSTRAUTF, 4th UNITAR/UNDP International Conference on Heavy Crude and TarSands, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, Vol. 4, pp. 223-242.
Edmunds, N.R., Kovalsky, J.A., Gittins, S.D. et al. 1994. Review of Phase ASteam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Test. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9(2): 119-124. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21529-PA.
Farouq-Ali, S.M. 1997. Is There Life After SAGD?, J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 36 (6): 20-24.
Gotawala, D.R. and Gates, I.D. 2008a. Steam Fingering at the Edge of a SteamChamber in a Heavy Oil Reservoir. Canadian J. of Chemical Eng. 86 (6): 1011-1022.
Gotawala, D.R. and Gates, I.D. 2008b. Stability Analysis of Steam Fingeringin Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. Paper 2008-429 presented at the Proceedingsof the World Heavy Oil Congress, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 10-12 March.
Gotawala, D.R. and Gates, I.D. 2008c. Flow and Energy Dynamics at the Edgesof Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Chambers. Paper presented at CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, pp.2008-2113.
Gotawala, D.R. and Gates, I.D. 2011. Stability of the Edge of a SAGD SteamChamber in a Bitumen Reservoir. Chemical Eng. Sci. 66:1802-1809.
Government of Alberta. 2008. Alberta's Oil Sands: Resourceful.Responsible, ISBN 978-07785.
Government of Alberta. 2011. Alberta Oil Sands Industry (AOSID)—QuarterlyUpdate Summer 2011, Reporting on the period: March 5, 2011 to June 3, 2011,www.albertacanada.com
Government of Alberta. 2012. www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/1715.asp.
Hill, S. 1952. Channeling in Packed Columns. Chemical Eng. Sci. 1(6): 247-253.
Irani, M. and Ghannadi, S. 2013. Understanding the Heat-Transfer Mechanismin the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process and Comparing theConduction and Convection Flux in Bitumen Reservoirs. SPE J. 18(1): 134-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163079-PA.
Ito, Y. and Ipek, G. 2005. Steam Fingering Phenomenon During SAGD Process.Paper SPE 97729 presented at the SPE/PS-CIM/CHOA International ThermalOperations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1-3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97729-MS.
Ito, Y. and Suzuki, S. 1996. Numerical Simulation of the SAGD Process in theHangingstone Oil Sands Reservoir. Paper 96-57 presented at the 47th AnnualTechnical Meeting of the Petroleum Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 10-13June.
Ito, Y. and Suzuki, S. 1999. Numerical Simulation of the SAGD Process in theHangingstone Oil Sands Reservoir. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38(9): 27-35.
Ito, Y., Suzuki, S., and Yamada, H. 1998. Effect of Reservoir Parameter onOil Rates and Steam Oil Ratios in SAGD Projects. Paper presented at the 7thUNITAR International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Beijing, China,27-30 October.
Liang, L. 2005. An Analytical Model for Cyclic Steaming of Horizontal Wells,MS thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Nukhaev, M., Pimenov, V., Shandrygin, A. et al. 2006. A New Analytical Modelfor the SAGD Production Phase. Paper SPE 102084 presented at the SPE AnnualTechnical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102084-MS.
O'Rourke, J.C., Begley, A.G., Boyle, H.A. et al. 1999. UTF Project StatusUpdate, May 1997. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38 (9): 44-54.
O'Rourke, J.C., Chambers, J.I., Suggelt, J.C. et al. 1994. UTF ProjectStatus and Commercial Potential: An Update, May 1994. Paper PETSOC 94-40presented at the Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 12-15June.
Reis, J.C. 1992. A Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Model for Tar Sands:Linear Geometry. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 31 (10): 14-20.
Saffman, P.G. and Taylor, G.I. 1958. The Penetration of a fluid Into aPorous Medium or Hele-Shaw Cell Containing a More Viscous Liquid. Proc.of the Royal Society 245 (1242): 312-329.
Schmid, P.J. and Henningson, D.S. 2000. Stability and Transition in ShearFlows, Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. 142, Springer.
Sharma, J. and Gates, I.D. 2010. Multiphase Flow at the Edge of a SteamChamber. Canadian J. Chemical Eng. 88 (3): 312-332.
Sharma, J. and Gates, I.D. 2011a. Convection at the Edge of aSteam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Steam Chamber. SPE J. 16 (3):503-512. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142432-PA.
Sharma, J. and Gates, I.D. 2011b. Interfacial Stability of In-Situ BitumenThermal Solvent Recovery Processes. SPE J. 16 (1): 55-64. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130050-PA.
Sharma, J., Inwood, S.B., and Kovscek, A.R. 2011. Experiments and Analysisof Multiscale Viscous Fingering During Forced Imbibition. Paper SPE 143946presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/143946-MS.
Shaw, J. and Bedry, M. 2012. SAGD Field Trial for a New Intelligent WellCompletions Strategy to Increase Thermal EOR Recoveries. Paper SPE 150477presented at the SPE Intelligent Energy International, Utrecht, TheNetherlands, 27-29 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150477-MS.