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On the Stability of the Edge of a Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Steam Chamber
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- Mazda Irani (RPS Energy) | Ian D. Gates (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- SPE Journal
- 280 - 288
- Publication Date
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 30 in the last 30 days
- 63 since 2007
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a successful thermal-recoverytechnique applied in oil-sand reservoirs in which the viscosity of the oil(bitumen) is typically in the hundreds of thousands to millions of centipoise.For the in-situ production from bitumen reservoirs, bitumen viscosity must bereduced to achieve the mobility required to flow toward the production well.Many factors influence the efficiency and rate at which bitumen is mobilized.The controlling feature of steam-based recovery processes is heat transfer fromthe steam chamber to the formation?the greater the heat flux, the larger theoil volume heated, and the higher the oil-drainage rate. Previous studies havedemonstrated that instability at the steam-chamber edge can enhance heattransfer there by creating limited-amplitude steam fingers that enlarge theheat-transfer area, thus leading to greater thermal efficiency of the recoveryprocess. This, in turn, increases oil production. At this point, stabilitystudies have focused on the instability between steam and oil at the edge ofthe chamber?none has examined the case between steam condensate and oil. In theresearch documented here, the stability between steam condensate and bitumen atthe edge of the chamber is explored. Here, a steam-pressure diffusion equationat the moving chamber interface is derived. the perturbations of the pressureand condensate velocity are substituted into the pressure diffusion equationand Darcy's law to realize a linear-stability equation governing the growth ofdisturbances at the interface. The results show that the stability iscontrolled by moving-interface velocity and reservoir water-phase hydraulicdiffusivity. Also, the results demonstrate that, at typical SAGD-operationconditions, the chamber edge is unstable.
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Gotawala, D.R. and Gates, I.D. 2008a. Steam Fingering at the Edge of a SteamChamber in a Heavy Oil Reservoir. Canadian J. of Chemical Eng. 86 (6): 1011-1022.
Gotawala, D.R. and Gates, I.D. 2008b. Stability Analysis of Steam Fingeringin Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage. Paper 2008-429 presented at the Proceedingsof the World Heavy Oil Congress, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 10-12 March.
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Irani, M. and Ghannadi, S. 2013. Understanding the Heat-Transfer Mechanismin the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process and Comparing theConduction and Convection Flux in Bitumen Reservoirs. SPE J. 18(1): 134-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163079-PA.
Ito, Y. and Ipek, G. 2005. Steam Fingering Phenomenon During SAGD Process.Paper SPE 97729 presented at the SPE/PS-CIM/CHOA International ThermalOperations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1-3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97729-MS.
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Ito, Y., Suzuki, S., and Yamada, H. 1998. Effect of Reservoir Parameter onOil Rates and Steam Oil Ratios in SAGD Projects. Paper presented at the 7thUNITAR International Conference on Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Beijing, China,27-30 October.
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