Optimization of Injection/Extraction Rates for Surface-Dissolution Process
- Qing Tao (University of Texas at Austin) | Steven Bryant (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 598 - 607
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 1.7.5 Well Control, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.10.1 CO2 Capture and Sequestration
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- 235 since 2007
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Implementing geological carbon sequestration at a large scale to mitigateanthropogenic emissions involves the injection of carbon dioxide(CO2) into deep brine-filled structures. An alternative to injectingCO2 as a buoyant phase is to dissolve it into brine extracted fromthe storage formation, then inject the CO2-saturated brine into thestorage formation. The CO2-concentration front shape, when itreaches the saturation-pressure contour, defines the maximal areal extent ofCO2-saturated brine and thus the aquifer-utilization efficiency. Theheterogeneity of the aquifer reduces the utilization efficiency significantly.We illustrate by comparing the utilization efficiency in ahomogeneous-permeability field with that in uncorrelated and correlatedheterogeneous fields under the same well control. The example cases yieldsignificant reductions of the utilization efficiency.We develop anoptimal-control strategy of the injection/extraction rates to maximize theutilization efficiency for heterogeneous aquifers. We propose two objectivefunctions: One seeks to improve the areal sweep by minimizing the mismatchbetween the CO2-concentration front and the saturation-pressurecontour; the other directly formulates the utilization efficiency whilepenalizing zones that contain gas-phase CO2. Both approaches haveimproved the aquifer-utilization efficiency by delaying the arrival of thedissolved CO2 front at the contour of saturation pressure.Heterogeneity plays an important role in determining the location of thesaturation-pressure contour within the storage formation. For a simple exampledomain, we propose a well-pattern orientation strategy by placing line-driveinjectors in a high-permeability zone and extractors in a low-permeabilityzone, so that the saturation-pressure contour is closer to the extractors andthus increases the aquifer utilization efficiency. Illustration of this conceptin the correlated heterogeneous field shows an improvement of the utilizationefficiency. When combined with the optimal control of injection/extractionrates, the increase in the utilization efficiency almost compensates thereduction because of the heterogeneity.
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