- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Analytical Solutions for Gas Displacements with Bifurcating Phase Behavior
- Saeid Khorsandi (Pennsylvania State University) | Kaveh Ahmadi (BP) | Russell T. Johns (Pennsylvania State University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 943 - 955
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 4.1.5 Processing Equipment
- MMP, Gasflooding, Method of Characteristics
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 397 since 2007
- Show more detail
Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) is one of the most important parameters in the design of a successful gasflooding process. The most-reliable methods to calculate the MMP are based on slimtube experiments, 1D slimtube simulations, mixing-cell calculations, and the analytical methods known as the method of characteristics (MOC). The calculation of MMP by use of MOC is the fastest method because it relies solely on finding the key tie lines in the displacement path. The MOC method for MMP estimation in its current form assumes that the composition path is a series of shocks from one key tie line to the next. For some oils, however, these key tie lines do not control miscibility, and the MMP calculated by use of the key-tie-line approach can be significantly in error. The error can be as high as 5,000 psia for heavier oils or CO2 displacements at low temperature in which three-phase hydrocarbon regions can exist (L1–L2–V). At higher pressures, the two- or three-phase region can split (or bifurcate) into two separate two-phase regions (L1–L2 and L1–V regions). Thus, for the MMP calculation from MOC to be correct, we must calculate the entire composition path for this complex phase behavior, instead of relying on the shock assumption from one key tie line to the next. In this paper, the MOC-composition route is developed completely for the bifurcating phase-behavior displacement for pure CO2 injection by use of a simplified pseudoternary system that is analogous to the complex phase behavior observed for several real displacements with CO2. We develop the MOC analytical solutions by honoring all constraints required for a unique solution—velocity, mass balance, entropy, and solution continuity. The results show that a combination of shocks and rarefaction waves exists along the nontie-line path, unlike previous MOC solutions reported to date. We show that by considering the entire composition path, not just the key tie lines, the calculated MMP agrees with the mixing-cell method. We also show that, in this complex ternary displacement, the displacement mechanism has features of a both condensing and vaporizing (C/V) drive, which was thought to be possible only for gasfloods with four or more components. For pure CO2 injection, the solution also becomes discontinuous for oils that lie on the tie-line envelope curve. Finally, we show that shock paths within the two-phase region are generally curved in composition space and that there is no MMP for some oil compositions considered in the displacements by CO2. Recovery can be large even though the MMP is not reached.
Ahmadi, K. and Johns, R.T. 2011. Multiple-Mixing-Cell Method for MMP Calculations. SPE J. 16 (4): 733–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116823-PA.
Ahmadi, K., Johns, R.T., Mogensen, K. et al. 2011. Limitations of Current Method-of-Characteristics (MOC) Methods Using Shock-Jump Approximations To Predict MMPs for Complex Gas/Oil Displacements. SPE J. 16 (4): 743–750. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129709-MS.
Bianchini, S. and Bressan, A. 2005. Vanishing Viscosity Solutions to Nonlinear Hyperbolic Systems. Annals of Math. 161: 223–342.
Buckley, S.E. and Leverett, M.C. 1942. Mechanism of Fluid Displacement in Sands. Trans., AIME 146: 107–116.
Dindoruk, B. 1992. Analytical Theory of Multiphase Multicomponent Displacement in Porous Media. Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford, California, Stanford University.
Dumore, J.M., Hagoort, J., and Risseeuw, A.S. 1984. An Analytical Model for One-Dimensional, Three-Component Condensing and Vaporizing Gas Drives. SPE J. 24 (2): 169–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10069-PA.
Egwuenu, A.M., Johns, R.T. and Li., Y. 2008. Improved Fluid Characterization for Miscible Gas Floods. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 655–665. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94034-PA.
Helfferich, F.G. 1981. Theory of Multicomponent, Multiphase Displacement in Porous Media. SPE J. 21 (1): 51–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8372-PA.
Helfferich, F. and Klein, G. 1970. Multicomponent Chromatography, New York City: Marcel Dekker Inc.
Jarrell, P.M., Fox, C.E., Stein, M.H. et al. 2002. Practical Aspects of CO2 Flooding, Vol. 22, SPE Monograph Series, Society of Petroleum Engineers.
Johns, R.T. 1992. Analytical Theory of Multicomponent Gas Drives With Two-Phase Mass Transfer, PhD dissertation, Department of Petroleum Engineering, Stanford, California, Stanford University.
Johns, R.T., Dindoruk, B., and Orr, F.M. 1993. Analytical Theory of Combined Condensing/Vaporizing Gas Drive. SPE Advanced Technology Series 1 (2): 7–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24112-PA.
Johns, R.T. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 1996. Miscible Gas Displacement of Multicomponent Oils. SPE J. 1 (1): 39–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30798-PA.
LaForce, T. and Johns, R.T. 2004. Analytical Theory for Three-Phase Partially Miscible Flow in Ternary Systems. Paper SPE 89438 presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 17–21 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89438-MS.
Lantz, R.B. 1971. Quantitative Evaluation of Numerical Diffusion (Truncation Error). SPE J. 11 (3): 315–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2811-PA.
Larson, R.G. 1979. The Influence of Phase Behavior on Surfactant Flooding. SPE J. Trans., AIME 19 (6): 411–422. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6774-PA.
Larson, L.L., Silva, M.K., Taylor, M.A. et al. 1989. Temperature Dependence of L1/L2/V Behavior in CO2/Hydrocarbon Systems. SPE Res Eng 4 (1): 105–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15399-PA.
Lax, P.D. 1957. Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws II. Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 10: 537–566.
Liu, T.P. 1976. The Entropy Condition and the Admissibility of Shocks. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 53: 78–88.
Mogensen, K., Hood, P., Lindeloff, N. et al. 2009. Minimum Miscibility Pressure Investigations for a Gas-Injection EOR Project in Al Shaheen Field, Offshore Qatar. Paper SPE 124109 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124109-MS.
Monroe, W.W., Silva, M.K., Larsen, L.L. et al. 1990. Composition Paths in Four Component Systems: Effect of Dissolved Methane on 1D CO2 Flood Performance. SPE Res Eng 5 (3): 423–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16712-PA.
Oil and Gas Journal. 2012. Survey: Miscible CO2 Now Eclipses Steam in US EOR Production, 110 (4): 39.
Orr, F.M. 2007. Theory of Gas Injection Processes, Denmark: Tie-line Publications.
Orr, F.M. and Jensen, C.M. 1984. Interpretation of Pressure-Composition Phase Diagrams for CO2/Crude-Oil Systems. SPE J. 24 (5): 485–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11125-PA.
Orr, F.M., Johns, R.T., and Dindoruk, B. 1993. Development of Miscibility on Four-Component CO2 Floods. SPE Res Eng 8 (2): 135–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22637-PA.
Pedersen, K.S., Leekumjorn, S., Krejbjerg, K. et al. 2012. Modeling of EOR PVT Data Using PC-SAFT Equation. Paper SPE 162346-PP presented at the Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 11–14 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162346-MS.
Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D.B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Industrial and Eng. Chemistry Fundamentals 5 (1): 59–64.
PennPVT Toolkit. 2013. Gas Flooding Joint Industry Project, Director: Dr. Russell T. Johns, EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Rhee, H. and Amundson, N.R. 1974. Shock Layer in Two Solute Chromatography: Effect of Axial Dispersion and Mass Transfer. Chemical Eng. Sci. 29 (10): 2049–2060.
Rhee, H., Aris, R., and Amundson, N. 1989. First-Order Partial Differential Equations. In Volume II, Theory and Application of Hyperbolic Systems of Quasilinear Equations, Prentice-Hall.
Ruben, J. and Patzek, T.W. 2004. Three-Phase Displacement Theory: An Improved Description of Relative Permeabilities. SPE J. 9 (3): 302–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88973-PA.
Sahimi, M., Davis, H.T., and Scriven, L.E. 1985. Thermodynamic Modeling of Phase and Tension Behavior of CO2/Hydrocarbon Systems. SPE J. 25 (2): 235–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10268-PA.
Stalkup, F.I. 1987. Displacement Behavior of the Condensing/Vaporizing Gas Drive Process. Paper SPE 16715 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Convention and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 27–30 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16715-MS.
Yellig, W.F. and Metcalfe, R.S. 1980. Determination and Prediction of CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressures. J. Pet Tech 32 (1): 160–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7477-PA.
Zick, A.A. 1986. A Combined Condensing/Vaporizing Mechanism in the Displacement of Oil by Enriched Gas. Paper SPE 15493 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15493-MS.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.