Proposed Alternative Method for Calculating Emissions From Hydraulic Fracturing Operations
- Andrew Sexton (Trimeric Corporation) | Lee Hinman (Noble Energy Inc.) | Ray McKaskle (Trimeric Corporation) | Kevin Fisher (Trimeric Corporation)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Economics & Management
- Publication Date
- October 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 151 - 158
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- emissions, greenhouse gases, empirical model
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 261 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule, published in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40, Part 98 (40 CFR 98), as a tool to help policy makers assess potential actions to take regarding greenhouse gases (GHGs). Subpart W, "Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems," of 40 CFR 98 prescribes GHG-emission-estimation methodologies and reporting requirements for the oil and gas industry. One area where significant issues remain to be resolved is the estimation of GHG emissions from the act of flowing back gas wells after recent hydraulic fracturing operations. As an alternative to measuring the flowback volume of GHG emissions from a fractured well, EPA presented equations for sonic and subsonic flow, which appear to be derived from the ideal-gas law. Anecdotal evidence from member companies of multiple trade organizations indicated that these equations may overestimate flow rates by as much as 600%. Noble Energy Incorporated (Noble), with the help of Trimeric Corporation (Trimeric), investigated and evaluated empirical methods to estimate GHG emissions from flowback operations that follow hydraulic fracturing. A number of earlier developed correlations for multiphase flow were considered before choosing the Gilbert-type correlation as a potentially applicable equation for this case. The goal of this analysis was to compare the accuracy of the ideal-gas-type equation in a multiphase-flow regime with a Gilbert-type predictive multiphase-flow correlation by use of site-specific and field-regressed coefficients. Measured data for daily and total cumulative gas, water, and oil produced, choke size, and tubing pressure for several wells within a field are needed to develop field-regressed coefficients for the Gilbert-type equation. However, once they have been determined, singular daily average values of choke size, tubing pressure, and rate of produced liquid (oil and water) are all that is required to predict the total volume of produced-gas emissions for other flowback operations in the field. The results of this study indicate that the Gilbert-type correlation with field-regressed coefficients predicts the overall volume of gas produced during a flowback operation more accurately than the single-phase flow EPA Eq. W-11B in 40 CFR 98.
|File Size||199 KB||Number of Pages||8|
Ajienka, J.A. and Ikoku, J.A. 1987. A Generalized Model For Multiphase Flow Metering. SPE-17174-MS.
Ajienka, J.A., Enaibe, O.E., and Owolabi, O.O. 1994. Multiphase Flow Metering: An Evaluation of Discharge Coefficients. J Can Pet Technol 33 (8): 57–62. PETSOC-94-08-07. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-08-07.
Al-Attar, H.H. 2010. New Correlations for Critical and Subcritical Two-Phase Flow Through Surface Chokes in High-Rate Oil Wells. SPE Proj Fac & Const 5 (1): 31–37. SPE-120788-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/120788-PA.
Al-Attar, H.H. 2008. Performance of Wellhead Chokes During Sub-Critical Flow of Gas Condensates. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 60 (3–4): 205–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.08.001.
Al-Attar, H.H. and Abdul-Majeed, G.H. 1988. Revised Bean Performance Equation for East Baghdad Oil Wells. SPE Res Eng 3 (1): 127–131. SPE-13742-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13742-PA.
Alsafran, E.M. and Kelkar, M. 2007. Predictions of Two-Phase Critical-Flow Boundary and Mass-Flow Rate Across Chokes. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, 11–14 November. SPE-109243-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/109243-MS.
Al-Towailib, A.L. and Al-Marhoun, M.A. 1994. A New Correlation For Two-Phase Flow Through Chokes. J Can Pet Technol 33 (5): 40–43. PETSOC-94-05-03. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-05-03/.
Ashford, F.E. 1974. An Evaluation of Critical Multiphase Flow Performance Through Wellhead Chokes. J Pet Technol 26 (8): 843–850. SPE-4541-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4541-PA.
Ashford, F.E. and Pierce, P.E. 1975. Determining Multiphase Pressure Drops and Flow Capacities in Down-Hole Safety Valves. J Pet Technol 27 (9): 1145–1152. SPE-5161-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5161-PA.
Burtsev, A., Ascanio, F.A., Mollinger, A.M., et al. 2006. Choked Flow in HVO Recovery: Injection and Production in Horizontal Wells. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24–27 September. SPE-102970-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102970-MS.
Elgibaly, A.A.M. and Nashawi, I.S. 1998. New Correlations For Critical And Subcritical Two-phase Flow Through Wellhead Chokes. J Can Pet Technol 37 (6): 36–43. PETSOC-98-06-04. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-06-04.
Fortunati, F. 1972. Two-Phase Flow through Wellhead Chokes. Presented at SPE European Spring Meeting, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 16–18 May. SPE-3742-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3742-MS.
Ghareeb, M. and Shedid, S.A. 2007. A New Correlation for Calculating Wellhead Production Considering Influences of Temperature, GOR, and Water-Cut for Artificially Lifted Wells. Presented at International Petroleum Technology Conference, Dubai, UAE, 4–6 December. IPTC-11101-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/11101-MS.
Ghassan, H.A.M. and Maha, R.A.A. 1991. Correlations Developed To Predict Two-Phase Flow Through Wellhead Chokes. J Can Pet Technol 30 (6): 47–55. PETSOC-91-06-05. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/91-06-05.
Gilbert, W.E. 1954. Flowing and Gas-Lift Well Performance. Presented at API Drilling and Production Practice, New York City, New York, 1 January. API-54-126.
Guo, B., Al-Bemani, A.S., and Ghalambor, A. 2002. Applicability of Sachdeva's Choke Flow Model in Southwest Louisiana Gas Condensate Wells. Presented at SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 April–2 May. SPE-75507-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75507-MS.
Guo, B., Al-Bemani, A.S., and Ghalambor, A. 2007. Improvement in Sachdeva's Multiphase Choke Flow Model Using Field Data. J Can Pet Technol 46 (5): 22–26. PETSOC-07-05-01. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-05-01.
Nasriani, H.R. and Kalantariasl, A. 2011. Two-Phase Flow Choke Performance in High Rate Gas Condensate Wells. Presented at SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 20–22 September. SPE-145576-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145576-MS.
Omana, R., Houssiere, C., Kermit, E., et al. 1969. Multiphase Flow Through Chokes. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 28 September–1 October. SPE-2682-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2682-MS.
Osman, M.E. and Dhokla, M.E. 1992. Correlations Predict Gas Condensate Flow Through Chokes. Oil Gas J. 90 (11): 43–46.
Perkins, T.K. 1993. Critical and Subcritical Flow of Multiphase Mixtures Through Chokes. SPE Drill & Compl 8 (4): 271–276. SPE-20633-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20633-PA.
Poettmann, F.E. and Beck, R.L. 1963. New Charts Developed to Predict Gas-Liquid Flow Through Chokes. World Oil 1963 (March): 95–101.
Sachdeva, R., Schmidt, Z., Brill, J.P., et al. 1986. Two-Phase Flow Through Chokes. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 5–8 October. SPE-15657-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15657-MS.
Schuller, R.B., Munaweera, S.J., Selmer-Olsen, S., et al. 2006. Critical and Sub-critical Oil/Gas/Water Mass Flow Rate Experiments and Predictions For Chokes. SPE Prod & Oper 21 (3): 372–380. SPE-88813-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88813-PA.
Schuller, R.B., Solbakken, T., and Selmer-Olsen, S. 2003. Evaluation of Multiphase Flow Rate Models for Chokes Under Subcritical Oil/Gas/Water Flow Conditions. SPE Prod & Fac 18 (3): 170–181. SPE-84961-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84961-PA.
Surbey, D.W., Kelkar, B.G., and Brill, J.P. 1988. Study of Subcritical Flow Through Multiple-Orifice Valves. SPE Prod Eng. 3 (1): 103–108. SPE-14285-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14285-PA.
Surbey, D.W., Kelkar, B.G., and Brill, J.P. 1989. Study of Multiphase Critical Flow Through Wellhead Chokes. SPE Prod Eng. 4 (2): 142–146. SPE-15140-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15140-PA.