- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Mass Transfer on Multiphase Transitions in Low-Temperature Carbon Dioxide Floods
- Ryosuke Okuno (University of Alberta) | Zhongguo Xu (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,005 - 1,023
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.3.4 Scale, 5.4 Enhanced Recovery, 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods
- Displacement efficiency, Mass transfer, Multicontact miscibility, CO2 flooding, Multiphase behavior
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 331 since 2007
- Show more detail
Mixtures of reservoir oil and carbon dioxide (CO2) can exhibit complex multiphase behavior at temperatures typically less than 120°F, in which a third CO2-rich liquid (L2) phase can coexist with the oleic (L1) and gaseous (V) phases. The three-phase behavior is bounded by two types of critical endpoints (CEPs) in composition space. The lower CEP (LCEP) is a tie line in which the two liquid phases merge in the presence of the V phase, and the upper CEP (UCEP) is a tie line in which the L2 and V phases merge in the presence of the L1 phase. Slimtube tests reported in the literature show that low-temperature oil displacement by CO2 can result in the high displacement efficiency of more than 90% when three phases are present during the displacement. The nearly piston-like displacements can be quantitatively reproduced in numerical simulations when the CEP behavior is properly considered. However, it is uncertain how multicontact miscibility (MCM) is developed through the interaction of flow and three-hydrocarbon-phase behavior. This research presents a detailed analysis of mass conservation on multiphase transitions between two and three phases for the limiting three-phase flow, where the L1 phase is completely displaced by the L2 phase on the LCEP. The analysis indicates that interphase mass transfer on multiphase transitions occurs in the most-efficient way for MCM development. Simple analytical conditions derived for MCM through three phases are applied to 1D fine-scale simulations of CO2 floods by use of four and more components. Results show that the MCM conditions are nearly satisfied when the effect of numerical dispersion is small. MCM is likely developed through three hydrocarbon phases on the LCEP in the cases studied. This is consistent with analytical solutions of water and gas injection presented in the literature, in which MCM is developed on a CEP for the aqueous, V, and L1 phases. For MCM cases in this research, the L2-V two phases are present upstream of the miscible front if the composition path does not go through the UCEP tie line. However, they also can be miscible on the non-L1 edge of the UCEP tie line if the MCM composition path goes through it. Three-phase flow gradually changes to two-phase flow with varying pressure in the presence of numerical dispersion. It is shown that interphase mass transfer on multiphase transitions becomes less efficient during the change until the three-phase region completely disappears.
Ahmadi, K. 2011. Advances in Calculation of Minimum Miscibility Pressure. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Ahmadi, K. and Johns, R.T. 2011. Multiple Mixing-Cell Method for MMP Calculations. SPE J. 16 (4): 733–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116823-PA.
Bluma, M. and Deiters, U.K. 1999. A Classification of Phase Diagrams of Ternary Fluid Systems. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 1 (18): 4307–4313.
Chang. Y.-B. 1990. Development and Application of an Equation of State Compositional Simulator. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Chang. Y.-B., Lim, M.T., Pope, G.A. et al. 1994. CO2 Flow Patterns Under Multiphase Flow: Heterogeneous Field-Scale Conditions. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (3): 208–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22654-PA.
Chang, Y.-B., Pope, G.A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1990. A Higher-Order Finite-Difference Compositional Simulator. J. Pet. Sci. & Eng. 5 (1): 35–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(90)90004-M.
Coutinho, J.A.P., Jørgensen, M., and Stenby, E.H. 1995. Predictions of Three-Phase Regions in CO2-Oil Mixtures. J. Pet. Sci. & Eng. 12 (3): 201–208.
Creek, J.L. and Sheffield, J.M. 1993. Phase Behavior, Fluid Properties, and Displacement Characteristics of Permian Basin Reservoir Fluid/CO2 Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (1): 34–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20188-PA.
Davenport, A.J. and Rowlinson, J.S. 1963. The Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Liquid Methane. Trans. of the Faraday Society 59: 78–84.
Davenport, A.J., Rowlinson, J.S., and Saville, G. 1966. Solutions of Three Hydrocarbons in Liquid Methane. Trans. of the Faraday Society 62: 322–327.
Deiters, U.K. and Pegg, I.L. 1989. Systematic Investigation of the Phase Behavior in Binary Fluid Mixtures. I. Calculations Based on the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State. J. Chemical Physics 90 (11): 6632–6641.
Deiters, U. and Schneider, G.M. 1976. Fluid Mixtures at High Pressures. Computer Calculations of the Phase Equilibria and the Critical Phenomena in Fluid Binary Mixtures From the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State. Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft fuer Physikalische Chemie 80 (12): 1316–1321.
DeRuiter, R.A., Nash, L.J., and Singletary, M.S. 1994. Solubility and Displacement Behavior of a Viscous Crude with CO2 and Hydrocarbon Gases. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (2): 101–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20523-PA.
Dindoruk, B. 1992. Analytical Theory of Multiphase, Multicomponent Displacement in Porous Media. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Enick, R., Holder, G.D., and Morsi, B.I. 1985. Critical and Three Phase Behavior in the Carbon Dioxide/Tridecane System. Fluid Phase Equilibria 22 (2): 209–224.
Galindo, A. and Blas, F.J. 2002. Theoretical Examination of the Global Fluid Phase Behavior and Critical Phenomena in Carbon Dioxide + n-Alkane Binary Mixtures. J. Physical Chemistry B 106 (17): 4343–4564.
Gardner, J.W., Orr Jr., F.M., and Patel, P.D. 1981. The Effect of Phase Behavior on CO2-Flood Displacement Efficiency. J. Pet Tech 33 (11): 2067–2081. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8367-PA.
Gauter, K. 1999. Fluid Multiphase Behavior in Ternary Systems of Near-Critical CO2. PhD dissertation, Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Gauter, K., Heidemann, R.A., and Peters, C.J. 1999. Modeling of Fluid Multiphase Equilibria in Ternary Systems of Carbon Dioxide as the Near-Critical Solvent and Two Low-Volatile Solutes. Fluid Phase Equilibria 158–160: 133–141.
Godbole, S.P., Thele, K.J., and Reinbold, E.W. 1995. EOS Modeling and Experimental Observations of Three-Hydrocarbon-Phase Equilibria. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (2): 101–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24936-PA.
Gregorowicz, J. and de Loos, Th.W. 1996. Modeling of the Three Phase LLV Region for Ternary Hydrocarbon Mixtures With the Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State. Fluid Phase Equilibria 118 (1): 121–132.
Grigg, R.B. and Siagian, U.W.R. 1998. Understanding and Exploiting Four-Phase Flow in Low-Temperature CO2 Floods. Paper SPE 39790 presented at the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland, Texas, 23–26 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39790-MS.
Guler, B., Wang, P., Delshad, M. et al. 2001. Three- and Four- Phase Flow Compositional Simulations of CO2/NGL EOR. Paper SPE 71485 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 30 September–3 October, New Orleans, Louisiana. http://dx.doi.org./10.2118/71485-MS.
Helfferich, F.G. 1981. Theory of Multicomponent, Multiphase Displacement in Porous Media. SPE J. 21 (1): 51–62.
Henry, R.L. and Metcalfe, R.S. 1983. Multiple-Phase Generation During Carbon Dioxide Flooding. SPE J. 23 (4): 595–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8812-PA.
Holm, L.W. and Josendal, V.A. 1974. Mechanisms of Oil Displacement by Carbon Dioxide. J Pet Tech 26 (12): 1427–1438. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4736-PA.
Holm, L.W. and Josendal, V.A. 1980. Discussion of Determination and Prediction of CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressures. Paper associated with Yellig, W.F. and Metcalfe, R.S. 1980. J Pet Tech 32 (1): 160–168.
Huang, E.T.S. and Tracht, J.H. 1974. The Displacement of Residual Oil by Carbon Dioxide. Paper SPE 4735 presented at the SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22-24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4735-MS.
Jessen, K., Michelsen, M.L., and Stenby, E.H. 1998. Global Approach for Calculation of Minimum Miscibility Pressure. Fluid Phase Equilibria 153: 251–263.
Johns, R.T. 1992. Analytical Theory of Multicomponent Gas Drives With Two-Phase Mass Transfer. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California.
Johns, R.T. and Orr Jr., F.M. 1996. Miscible Gas Displacement of Multicomponent Oils. SPE J. 1 (1): 39–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30798-PA.
Johns, R.T., Sah, P., and Sabramanian, S.K. 2000. Effect of Gas Enrichment Above the MME on Oil Recovery in Enriched-Gas Floods. SPE J. 5 (3): 331–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65704-PA.
Khan, S.A. 1992. An Expert System to Aid in Compositional Simulation of Miscible Gas Flooding. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Khan, S.A., Pope, G.A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1992. Fluid Characterization of Three-Phase CO2/Oil Mixtures. Paper SPE 24130 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 2224 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24130-MS.
Kohn, J.P., Kim, Y.J., and Pan, Y.C. 1966. Partial Miscibility Phenomena in Binary Hydrocarbon Systems Involving Ethane. J. Chem. & Eng. Data 11 (3): 333–335.
LaForce, T.C. 2005. Mathematics of Partially Miscible Three-Phase Flow. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
LaForce, T.C. 2012. Insight From Analytical Solutions for Improved Simulation of Miscible WAG Flooding in One Dimension. Comp. Geosci. 16: 1007–1020.
LaForce, T.C., Jessen, K., and Orr Jr., F.M. 2008a. Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part I. Structure of the Conservation Law. Transport in Porous Media 71: 199–216.
LaForce, T.C., Jessen, K., and Orr Jr., F.M. 2008b. Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part II. Example Solutions. Transport in Porous Media 72: 83–96.
LaForce, T.C. and Johns, R.T. 2005. Composition Routes for Three-Phase Partially Miscible Flow in Ternary Systems. SPE J. 10 (2): 161–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89438-PA.
LaForce, T.C. and Orr Jr., F.M. 2008. Development of Gas/Oil Miscibility in Water and Gas Injection. Paper SPE 116119 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 21–24 September. http://dx.doi.org/116119-MS.
LaForce, T.C. and Orr Jr., F.M. 2009. Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part III. Development of Miscibility. Transport in Porous Media 79: 225–247.
Larson, L.L., Silva, M.K., Taylor, M.A. et al. 1989. Temperature Dependence of L1/L2/V Behavior in CO2/Hydrocarbon Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (1): 105–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15399-PA.
Lim, M.T., Khan, S.A., Sepehrnoori, K. et al. 1992. Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Flooding Using Horizontal Wells. Paper SPE 24929 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4–7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24929-MS.
Lohrenz, J., Bray, B.C., and Clark, C.R. 1964. Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids From Their Compositions. J. Pet Tech 16 (10): 1171–1176.
McKean, T.A.M., Thomas, A.H., Chesher, J.R. et al. 1999. Schrader Bluff CO2 EOR Evaluation. Paper SPE 54619 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 26–27 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54619-MS.
Metcalfe, R.S. and Yarborough, L. 1979. The Effect of Phase Equilibria on the CO2 Displacement Mechanism. SPE J. 19 (4): 242–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7061-PA.
Mohanty, K.K., Masino Jr., W.H., Ma, T.D. et al. 1995. Role of Three-Hydrocarbon-Phase Flow in a Gas-Displacement Process. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (3): 214–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24115-PA.
Mushrif, S.H. 2004. Determining Equation of State Binary Interaction Parameters Using K- and L-Points. MS thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
Mushrif, S.H. and Phoenix, A.V. 2008. Effect of Peng-Robinson Binary Interaction Parameters on the Predicted Multiphase Behavior of Selected Binary Systems. Industrial and Eng. Chemistry Res. 47 (16): 6280–6288.
Negahban, S. and Kremesec Jr., V.J. 1992. Development and Validation of Equation-of-State Fluid Descriptions for CO2/Reservoir-Oil Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 7 (3): 363–368.
Ogino, K. 1988. Compositional Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Oil Recovery Experiments, MS thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Okuno, R. 2009. Modeling of Multiphase Behavior for Gas Flooding Simulation. PhD dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas.
Okuno, R., Johns, R.T., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2011. Mechanisms for High Displacement Efficiency of Low-Temperature CO2 Floods. SPE J. 16 (4): 751–767. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129846-PA.
Okuno, R. and Xu, Z. 2014. Efficient Displacement of Heavy Oil Using Three Hydrocarbon Phases. Accepted for publication in SPE J., January 17, 2014.
Okuyiga, M.O. 1992. Equation of State Characterization and Miscibility Development in a Multiple Phase Hydrocarbon System. Paper SPE 24937 presented at the Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4–7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24937-MS.
Orr Jr., F.M. 2007. Theory of Gas Injection Processes. Holte, Denmark: Tie-Line Publications.
Orr Jr., F.M. and Jensen, C.M. 1984. Interpretation of Pressure-Composition Phase Diagrams for CO2/Crude-Oil Systems. SPE J. 24 (5): 485–497. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11125-PA.
Orr Jr., F.M., Silva, M.K., and Lien, C.L. 1983. Equilibrium Phase Compositions of CO2/Crude Oil Mixtures—Part 2: Comparison of Continuous Multiple-Contact and Slim-Tube Displacement Tests. SPE J. 23 (2): 281–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10725-PA.
Orr Jr., F.M., Yu, A.D., and Lien, C.L. 1981. Phase Behavior of CO2 and Crude Oil in Low-Temperature Reservoirs. SPE J. 21 (4): 480–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8813-PA.
PVTsim, 20.0. 2011. Calsep A/S, Lyngby, Denmark.
Rowlinson, J.S. and Freeman, P.I. 1961. Lower Critical Solution Points in Hydrocarbon Mixtures. Pure and Applied Chemistry 2 (1–2): 329–334.
Scott, R.L. and van Konynenburg, P.H. 1970. van der Waals and Related Models for Hydrocarbon Mixtures. Discussions of the Faraday Society 49: 87–97.
Shelton, J.L. and Yarborough, L. 1977. Multiple Phase Behavior in Porous Media During CO2 or Rich-Gas Flooding. J. Pet Tech 29 (9):1171–1178. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5827-PA.
Stalkup, F.I. 1978. Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding: Past, Present, and Outlook for the Future. J. Pet Tech 30 (8): 1102–1112. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7042-PA.
Tchelepi, H.A. and Orr Jr., F.M. 1994. Interaction of Viscous Fingering, Permeability Heterogeneity, and Gravity Segregation in Three Dimensions. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (4): 266–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25235-PA.
Turek, E.A., Metcalfe, R.S., and Fishback, R.E. 1988. Phase Behavior of Several CO2/West Texas-Reservoir-Oil Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 3 (2): 505–516. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13117-PA.
Uzunov, D.I. 1993. Introduction to the Theory of Critical Phenomena. Farrer Road, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
van Konynenburg, P.H. 1968. Critical Lines and Phase Equilibria in Binary Mixtures. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, California.
van Konynenburg, P.H. and Scott, R.L. 1980. Critical Lines and Phase Equilibria in Binary van der Waals Mixtures. Philosophical Trans. of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Math. & Physical Sci. 298 (1442): 495–540.
Wagner, J.R., McCaffrey, D.S., and Kohn, J.P. 1968. Partial Miscibility Phenomena in the Ternary System Ethane-n-Hexadecane-n-Eicosane. J. Chem. & Eng. Data 13 (1): 22–24.
Wang, Y., Lin, C.-Y., Bidinger, C. et al. 2003. Compositional Modeling of Gas Injection With Three Hydrocarbon Phases for Schrader Bluff EOR. Paper SPE 84180 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84180-MS.
Wang, Y. and Orr Jr., F.M. 1997. Analytical Calculation of Minimum Miscibility Pressure. Fluid Phase Equilibria 139: 101–124.
Yang, Q. 2006. Automatic Development of Global Phase Diagrams for Binary Systems in Pressure-Temperature Space. Master thesis, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada.
Yellig, W.F. and Metcalfe, R.S. 1980. Determination and Prediction of CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressures. J. Pet Tech 32 (1): 160–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7477-PA.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.