Temperature-Prediction Model for a Horizontal Well With Multiple Fractures in a Shale Reservoir
- Nozomu Yoshida (Texas A&M University) | Ding Zhu (Texas A&M University) | Alfred Daniel Hill (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 261 - 273
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- temperature monitoring, multiple stage fracturing, shale gas reservoir
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 600 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Downhole temperature measurements, either by permanent sensors or temporarily conveyed tools, provide information that has been used in many production-diagnosis applications. This paper presents a study that correlates the temperature behavior to the flow profile in a multistage-fractured horizontal well. The ultimate goal is to interpret well performance and to optimize fracture-treatment design from monitored temperature data. This study has developed flow and thermal models for a system of horizontal wells with transverse fractures under single-phase gas-flow conditions. The system was divided into a horizontal wellbore and a reservoir having multiple fractures. The wellbore-flow and -thermal models were formulated on the basis of mass, momentum, and energy balance. Numerical reservoir simulation was adopted for the reservoir-flow problem, and the reservoir-thermal model was formulated by a transient energy-balance equation, considering viscous dissipation heating and temperature variation caused by fluid expansion in addition to heat conduction and convection. In the reservoir system, the primary hydraulic fractures perpendicular to the horizontal well were modeled explicitly with thin grid cells, and the fracture network around the horizontal well was modeled as an enhanced-permeability zone with respect to the unstimulated-matrix permeability. The reservoir grids between two fractures were spaced logarithmically to capture transient-flow behavior. The reservoir-flow and -thermal models were coupled with the wellbore models to predict the temperature distribution in a horizontal wellbore. The results of the models show two main mechanisms in this thermal problem: head conduction by formation heating/cooling effects at nonperforated zones and wellbore-fluid mixing effects, with reservoir inflow at fracture locations (fluid-entry points). The examples in the paper illustrate that the models can be used to predict temperature profiles in stimulated horizontal wells for identical or nonidentical transverse fractures. Sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the influences of fracture conductivity and half-length on temperature behavior in the defined system. The results indicate that the wellbore temperature is sensitive to both the fracture geometry (fracture half-length) and the conductivity across the investigated data range, though they showed different behaviors with time. This work shows that real-time post-fracture temperature-data measurement offers the potential to help evaluate created-fracture parameters, such as fracture conductivity and effective half-lengths.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Barree, R.D., Fisher, M.K., and Woodroof, R.A. 2002. A Practical Guide to Hydraulic Fracture Diagnostic Technologies. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 29 September–2 October. SPE-77442-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77442-MS.
Castano, A.F., Sondergeld, C.H., and Rai, C.S. 2010. Estimation of Uncertainty in Microseismic Event Location Associated With Hydraulic Fracturing. Presented at the Tight Gas Completions Conference, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 2–3 November. SPE-135325-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135325-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Lolon, E.P., and Mayerhofer, M.J. 2008. Resolving Created, Propped, and Effective Hydraulic-Fracture Length. Presented at the International Petroleum technology Conference, Kuala Lumpur, 3–5 December. IPTC-12147-MS.. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/12147-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Lolon, E.P., and Mayerhofer, M.J. 2009. Resolving Created, Propped, and Effective Hydraulic-Fracture Length. SPE Prod & Oper 24 (4): 619–628. SPE-129618-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129618-PA.
Dawkrajai, P., Lake, L.W., Yoshioka, K. et al. 2006. Detection of Water or Gas Entries in Horizontal Wells from Temperature Profiles. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA, 22–26 April. SPE-100050-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100050-MS.
Fisher, M.K., Heinze, J.R., Harris, C.D. et al. 2004. Optimizing Horizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26–29 September. SPE-90051-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90051-MS.
Fisher, M.K., Wright, C.A., Davidson, B.M. et al. 2005. Integrating Fracture-Mapping Technologies to Improve Stimulations in the Barnett Shale. SPE Prod & Oper 20 (2): 85–93. SPE-77441-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77441-PA.
Hannah, R.R., Harrington, L.J., and Anderson, R.W. 1977. Stimulation Design Applications of a Technique To Locate Successive Fluid Segments in Fractures. Presented at the SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 9–12 October. SPE-6815-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6815-MS.
Harrington, L.J., Hannah, R.R., and Beirute, R. 1978. Post Fracturing Temperature Recovery And Its Implication For Stimulation Design. Presented at the SPE Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 1–3 October. SPE-7560-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7560-MS.
Hasan, A.R., Kabir, C.S., and Wang, X. 1997. Development and Application of a Wellbore/Reservoir Simulator for Testing Oil Wells. SPE Form Eval 12 (3): 182–188. SPE-29892-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29892-PA.
Hembling, D.E., Berberian, G., Carter, N. et al. 2008. Enabling Efficient Permanent Production Monitoring of Advanced Well Completions In Saudi Arabia Using Fiber-Optic Distributed Temperature Sensing. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE-115255-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115255-MS.
Hill, A.D. 1990. Production Logging: Theoretical and Interpretive Elements. Richardson, Texas: Henry L. Doherty Memorial Fund of AIME, Society of Petroleum Engineers (Reprint).
Hoang, H., Mahadevan, J., and Lopez, H. 2012. Injection Profiling During Limited-Entry Fracturing Using Distributed-Temperature-Sensor Data. SPE J. 17 (3): 752–767. SPE-140442-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140442-PA.
Huckabee, P. T. 2009. Optic Fiber Distributed Temperature for Fracture Stimulation Diagnostics and Well Performance Evaluation. Paper SPE 118831 presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/118831-MS.
Izgec, B., Kabir, C.S., Zhu, D. et al. 2007. Transient Fluid and Heat Flow Modeling in Coupled Wellbore/Reservoir Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (3): 294–301. SPE-102070-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102070-PA.
Kabir, C.S., Hasan, A.R., Jordan, D.L. et al. 1996. A Wellbore/Reservoir Simulator for Testing Gas Wells in High-Temperature Reservoirs. SPE Form Eval 11 (2): 128–134. SPE-28402-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28402-PA.
Li, Z., Yin, J., Zhu, D. et al. 2011. Using downhole temperature measurement to assist reservoir characterization and optimization. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 78 (2): 454–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2011.06.012.
Li, Z. and Zhu, D. 2010. Predicting Flow Profile of Horizontal Well by Downhole Pressure and Distributed-Temperature Data for Waterdrive Reservoir. SPE Prod & Oper 25 (3): 296–304. SPE-124873-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124873-PA.
Li, Z. and Zhu, D. 2011. Optimization of Production With ICVs by Using Temperature-Data Feedback in Horizontal Wells. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (3): 253–261. SPE-135156-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135156-PA.
Maxwell, S.C., Waltman, C.K., Warpinski, N.R. et al. 2009. Imaging Seismic Deformation Induced by Hydraulic Fracture Complexity. SPE Res Eval & Eng 12 (1): 48–52. SPE-102801-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102801-PA.
Mayerhofer, M.J., Lolon, E.P., Youngblood, J.E. et al. 2006. Integration of Microseismic-Fracture-Mapping Results With Numerical Fracture Network Production Modeling in the Barnett Shale. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24–27 September. SPE-102103-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102103-MS.
Mayerhofer, M.J., Lolon, E.P., Warpinski, N.R. et al. 2010. What Is Stimulated Reservoir Volume? SPE Prod & Oper 25 (1): 89–98. SPE-119890-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119890-PA.
Moridis, G.J., Blasingame, T.A., and Freeman, C.M. 2010. Analysis of Mechanisms of Flow in Fractured Tight-Gas and Shale-Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Lima, Peru, 1–3 December. SPE-139250-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139250-MS.
Peaceman, D.W. 1983. Interpretation of Well-Block Pressures in Numerical Reservoir Simulation with Nonsquare Grid Blocks and Anisotropic Permeability. Society of Petroleum Engineers Journal 23 (3): 531–543. SPE-10528-PA. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.2118/10528-PA.
Prats, M. 1969. The Heat Efficiency of Thermal Recovery Processes. J Pet Technol 21 (03): 323–332. SPE-2211-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2211-PA.
Prats, M. 1992. The Heat Efficiency of Thermal Recovery Processes Resulting From Non-Uniform Vertical Temperature Profiles. Presented at the SPE Latin America Petroleum Engineering Conference, Caracas, Venezuela, 8–11 March. SPE-23744-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23744-MS.
Ramey, H.J. 1962. Wellbore Heat Transmission. J Pet Technol 14 (4): 427–435. SPE-96-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-PA.
Sierra, J., Kaura, J., Gualtieri, D. et al. 2008. DTS Monitoring Data of Hydraulic Fracturing: Experiences and Lessons Learned. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 21–24 September. SPE-116182-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116182-MS.
Sui, W. 2009. Determining Multilayer Formation Properties from Transient Temperature and Pressure Measurements. PhD Dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas (August 2009).
Sui, W., Zhu, D., Hill, A.D. et al. 2008. Model for Transient Temperature and Pressure Behavior in Commingled Vertical Wells. Presented at the SPE Russian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Moscow, 28–30 October. SPE-115200-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115200-MS.
Tabatabaei, M. and Zhu, D. 2012. Fracture-Stimulation Diagnostics in Horizontal Wells Through Use of Distributed-Temperature-Sensing Technology. SPE Prod & Oper 27 (4): 356–362. SPE-148835-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148835-PA.
Wang, X., Lee, J., Thigpen, B. et al. 2008. Modeling Flow Profile Using Distributed Temperature Sensor (DTS) System. Presented at the Intelligent Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 25–27 February. SPE-111790-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/111790-MS.
Yin, J., Xie, J., Datta-Gupta, A. et al. 2011. Improved Characterization and Performance Assessment of Shale Gas Wells by Integrating Stimulated Reservoir Volume and Production Data. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Columbus, Ohio, USA, 1 October. SPE-148969-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148969-MS.
Yoshioka, K., Zhu, D., Hill, A.D. et al. 2005a. A Comprehensive Model of Temperature Behavior in a Horizontal Well. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9–12 October. SPE-95656-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95656-MS.
Yoshioka, K., Zhu, D., Hill, A.D. et al. 2005b. Interpretation of Temperature and Pressure Profiles Measured in Multilateral Wells Equipped with Intelligent Completions. Presented at the SPE Europec/EAGE Annual Conference, Madrid, Spain, 13–16 June. SPE-94097-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94097-MS.
Yoshioka, K., Zhu, D., Hill, A.D. et al. 2007. Prediction of Temperature Changes Caused by Water or Gas Entry into a Horizontal Well. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (4): 425–433. SPE-100209-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100209-PA.
Zhang, X., Du, C., Deimbacher, F. et al. 2009. Sensitivity Studies of Horizontal Wells with Hydraulic Fractures in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, 7–9 December. IPTC-13338-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/13338-MS.