3D Geomechanical Modeling of Salt-Creep Behavior on Wellbore Casing for Presalt Reservoirs
- HanYi Wang (University of Texas at Austin) | Robello Samuel (Halliburton)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Drilling & Completion
- Publication Date
- December 2016
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 261 - 272
- 2016.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Wellbore Stablity, Completion, Pre-Salt, Casing, Salt Creep
- 30 in the last 30 days
- 284 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Exploration drilling is venturing into deeper regions of water. During the exploration of these deeper water depths, large hydrocarbon deposits have been found below salt formations. These reservoirs are called “presalts,” which are below the salt formations. Presalt reservoirs have been found in offshore Brazil, the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), West Africa, and the North Sea. Completions in salt formations can be difficult because of the creep behavior that the salt formations exhibit. Creep behavior results from the instability of the salt formation, which causes a slow flow and permanent deformations. Creep deformation occurs over time and begins once the salt formation has been penetrated. Completion of the wellbore does not stop formation creep. The constant creep of the salt formation causes excess stress on the wellbore casing, which may eventually cause the casing to collapse. In this study, a 3D geomechanical model is developed, by use of data such as wellbore pressure and temperature; formation stress and temperature; rock, cement, and casing properties, to predict the effects of salt-creep behavior on stress loading in the wellbore casing, which helps to assess the life expectancy of wells in presalt reservoirs. The simulation results of this model can provide quantitative results of casing stress and deformation as a function of time under various temperature, in-situ-stress, and operation conditions, which can be used as useful information for subsequent wellbore-casing design and wellbore-integrity analysis. In addition, possible methods that can mitigate the severity of salt mobility and reduce the risks of casing collapse are discussed.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||12|
Albertz, M., Beaumont, C., Shimeld, J. W. et al. 2010. An Investigation of Salt Tectonic Structural Styles in the Scotian Basin, Offshore Atlantic Canada: 1. Comparison of Observations With Geometrically Simple Numerical Models. Tectonics 29 (4). http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009TC002539
Barker, J. W., Feland, K. W. and Tsao, Y. H. 1994. Drilling Long Salt Sections Along the US Gulf Coast. SPE Drill & Compl 9 (3): 185–188. SPE-24605-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24605-PA.
Beasley, C., Fiduk, J., Bize, E. et al. 2010. Brazil’s Presalt Play. Oilfield Rev. 22 (3): 28–37.
Carslaw, H. S. and Jaeger, J. C. 1959. Conduction of Heat in Solids, second edition. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Chatar, C. and Imler, M. D. 2010. Overcoming a Difficult Salt Drilling Environment in the Gulf of Mexico: A Case Study. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 2–4 February. SPE-128192-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/128192-MS.
Cheatham, J. B. Jr. and McEver, J. W. 1964. Behavior of Casing Subjected to Salt Loading. J Pet Technol 16 (9): 1069–1075. SPE-828-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/828-PA.
Chitale, V., Alabi, G., Kasten, R. et al. 2014. Learning From Deployment of a Variety of Modern Petrophysical Formation Evaluation Technologies and Techniques for Characterization of a Pre-Salt Carbonate Reservoir: Case Study From Campos Basin, Brazil. Presented at the SPWLA 55th Annual Logging Symposium, Abu Dhabi, 18–22 May. SPWLA-2014-G.
Corona, E. and Reedlunn, B. 2013. A Review of Macroscopic Ductile Failure Criteria. Sandia Report SAND2013–7989, Sandia National Laboratories, US Department of Energy, September 2013.
da Costa, A. M., Amaral, C. S., Poiate, E. Jr. et al. 2012. Underground Storage of Natural Gas and CO2 in Salt Caverns in Deep and Ultra-deep Water Offshore Brazil. Harmonising Rock Engineering and the Environment, ed. Y. Zhou, Chapter 300, 1659–1664. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.
da Costa, A. M., Poiate, E., Amaral, C. S. et al. 2010. Geomechanics Applied to the Well Design Through Salt Layers In Brazil:A History of Success. Presented at the 44th US Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th US-Canada Rock Mechanics Symposium, Salt Lake City, Utah, 27–30 June. ARMA-10-239.
Dribus, J. R., Jackson, M. P. A., Kapoor, J. et al. 2008. The Prize Beneath the Salt. Oilfield Rev. 20 (3): 4–17.
Dusseault, M. B., Maury, V., Sanfilippo, F. et al. 2004. Drilling Around Salt: Risks, Stresses, And Uncertainties. Presented at Gulf Rocks 2004, the 6th North America Rock Mechanics Symposium (NARMS), Houston, 5–9 June. ARMA-04-647.
Farmer, P., Miller, D., Pieprzak, A. et al. 1996. Exploring the Subsalt. Oilfield Rev. 8 (1): 50–64.
Garland, J., Neilson, J., Laubach, S. E. et al. 2012. Advances in Carbonate Exploration and Reservoir Analysis. Geol. Soc. Lond. Spec. Pub. 370 (1): 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1144/SP370.15.
Goodwin, K. J. 1984. Salt-Free Cement – An Alternative to Collapsed Casing in Plastic Salts. J Pet Technol 36 (2): 320–324. SPE-10885-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10885-PA.
Greenhalgh, J., Borsato, R., Mathew, F. et al. 2012. Pre-Salt Hydrocarbon Prospectivity in the Kwanza and Benguela Basins of Offshore Angola. Presented at the 2012 SEG Annual Meeting, Las Vegas, Nevada, 4–9 November. SEG-2012-1084.
Hansen, F. D. 2011. Salt Repository Geomechanics Research Agenda. Presented at the 45th US Rock Mechanics and Geomechanics Symposium, San Francisco, 26–29 June. ARMA-11-200.
Hashiguchi, K. 2014. Elastoplasticity Theory. Vol. 69, Lecture Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Huber, M. T. 1904. Wlasciwa praca odksztalcemia jako miara wytezenia materialu (in Polish). Czasopismo Techniczne 22: 181. (in Polish)
Irgens, F. 2008. Continuum Mechanics. Berlin: Springer.
Jin, J. and Cristescu, N. D. 1998. An Elastic/Viscoplastic Model for Transient Creep of Rock Salt. Int. J. Plasticity 14 (1): 85–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-6419(97)00042-9.
Khalaf, F. and Cairo, U. 1985. Increasing Casing Collapse Resistance Against Salt-Induced Loads. Presented at the Middle East Oil Technical Conference and Exhibition, Bahrain, 11–14 March. SPE-13712-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/13712-MS.
Lao, K., Bruno, M. S. and Serajian, V. 2012. Analysis of Salt Creep and Well Casing Damage in High Pressure and High Temperature Environments. Presented at the Offshore Technology Conference, Houston, 30 April–3 May. OTC-23654-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/23654-MS.
Lamé, G. and Clapeyron, B. 1831. Mémoire sur l’équilibre intérieur des corps solides homogènes. Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik 7: 145–169. (in French).
Mackay, F., Inoue, N., da Fontoura, S. A. B. et al. 2008. Analyzing Geomechanical Effects While Drilling Sub Salt Wells Through Numerical Modeling. Presented at the SPE Indian Oil and Gas Technical Conference and Exhibition, Mumbai, 4–6 March. SPE-113216-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/113216-MS.
Mathur, R., Seiler, N., Srinivasan, A. et al. 2010. Opportunities and Challenges of Deepwater Subsalt Drilling. IADC/SPE Drilling Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 2–4 February. SPE-127687-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/127687-MS.
Matsuzawa, M., Umezu, S. and Yamamoto, K. 2006. Natural Hydrate Exploration Campaign in the Nankai-Trough Offshore Japan. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Miami, Florida, 21–23 February. SPE-98960-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98960-MS.
Munson, D. E. 2004. M-D Constitutive Model Parameters Defined For Gulf Coast Salt Domes And Structures. Presented at Gulf Rocks 2004, the 6th North America Rock Mechanics Symposium, Houston, 5–9, June. ARMA-04-549.
O’Brien, J. and Lerche, I. 1994. Understanding Subsalt Overpressure May Reduce Drilling Risks. Oil Gas J. 92 (4): 28–34.
Pattillo, P. D. and Rankin, T. E. 1981. How Amoco Solved Design Problems in the Gulf of Suez. Petrol. Eng. Int. 86–112.
Poiate, E. Jr. 2012. Mecânica das Rochas e Mecânica Computacional para Projeto de Poços de Petróleo em Zonas de Sal (in Portuguese). PhD dissertation, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro.
Rike, E. A., Bryant, G. A. and Williams, S. D. 1986. Success in Prevention of Casing Failures Opposite Salts, Little Knife Field, North Dakota. SPE Drill Eng 1 (2): 131–140. SPE-12903-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12903-PA.
Samuel, R. and Wang, H. 2015. October. Optimized Centralizer Placement for Pre-Salt Formation. Presented at OTC Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, 27–29 October. OTC-26092-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.4043/26092-MS.
Sobolik, S. R. and Lord, A. S. 2014. Case Study of the Impact of Prior Cavern Abandonment on Long-Term Oil Storage at a Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site. Presented at the 48th US Rock Mechanics and Geomechanics Symposium, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1–4 June. ARMA-2014-7002.
Taylor, G. I. and Quinney, H. 1931. The Plastic Distortion of Metals. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 230 (681–693): 323–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1932.0009.
Thompson, D. L., Stilwell, J. D. and Hall, M. 2015. Lacustrine Carbonate Reservoirs from Early Cretaceous Rift Lakes of Western Gondwana: Pre-Salt Coquinas of Brazil and West Africa. Gondwana Res. 28 (1): 26–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2014.12.005.
von Mises, R. 1913. Mechanik der Festen Körper im Plastisch Deformablen Zustand (in German). Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 1913: 582–592.
Wang, H., Kumar, A. and Samuel, R. 2014. Geomechanical Modeling of Wellbore Stability in Anisotropic Salt Formation. Presented at the SPE Latin America and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Maracaibo, Venezuela, 21–23 May. SPE-169458-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/169458-MS.
Western, P. and Ball, G. 1992. 3D Prestack Depth Migration in the Gulf of Suez: A Case Study. Geophys. Prospect. 40 (4): 379–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2478.1992.tb00533.x.
Willson, S. M., Fossum A. F. and Fredrich, J. T. 2003. Assessment of Salt Loading on Well Casing. SPE Drill & Compl 18 (1): 13–21. SPE-81820-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/81820-PA.
Ypma, T. J. 1995 Historical Development of the Newton-Raphson Method. SIAM Rev. 37 (4): 531–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1137/1037125.
Zhao, H., Chen. M. and Wang. J. 2011. Salt Loading on Casing in Cased Wellbore Sections. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. 48 (3): 501–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2011.02.011.
Zienkiewicz, O. C. and Taylor, R. L. 2005. The Finite Element Method, fifth edition. London: Elsevier.