Three-Phase Relative Permeability Modeling in the Simulation of WAG Injection
- Lin Zuo (Stanford University) | Yuguang Chen (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Zhou Dengen (Chevron Energy Technology Company) | Jairam Kamath (Chevron Energy Technology Company)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 326 - 339
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.4 Enhanced Recovery
- three-phase relative permeability, water alternating gas, gas injection
- 13 in the last 30 days
- 699 since 2007
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We propose a new workflow to evaluate the effect of three-phase relative permeability models on the simulation of water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection: define a root-mean-square error to quantify differences between the models; introduce a high-uncertainty region on a ternary saturation diagram; and map simulation saturation/time paths in this ternary diagram. The display of the saturation paths, along with the high-uncertainty region, allows us to systematically analyze and understand the effect of three phase models on recovery predictions. We apply the workflow to immiscible and miscible WAG injection, simulated by use of black-oil and compositional models. Both 2D homogeneous cases (with various reservoir conditions and injection scheduling) and realistic 3D field sector models are considered. We show that the three-phase relative permeability models can have a strong effect on recovery predictions for immiscible WAG injection, and the effect depends on initial conditions and displacement history. For compositional simulation of multicontact miscible WAG injection, the effect of three-phase models depends on the size of the three-phase-flow region before the miscibility fully develops. Simulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) flooding on a 3D field sector model reveals that the uncertainty in recovery predictions because of the various three-phase models is secondary compared with other sources of uncertainty (such as the input two-phase relative permeability data), and this may be the case in other field studies.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||14|
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