In-Situ, Solvent-Assisted Gravity Drainage of Bitumen: Nonlinear Numerical Analysis
- Karim Ghesmat (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- February 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 109 - 121
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements
- 1 in the last 30 days
- 262 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The use of condensing solvents, especially propane vapor, has been proposed for the low-temperature recovery of bitumen by gravity drainage. A full numerical analysis of such a process is presented. A hybrid spectral/finite-difference method was implemented to solve equations simultaneously. The results show that the hydrodynamics of a miscible front was highly dependent on the characteristics of the porous medium and also on the properties of the miscible fluid. As a significant factor, the dependency of the production flow rate on the thickness of the porous medium was measured.The order of dependency was found to be a function of time and cannot be considered as a constant. Hydrodynamic dispersion was also found to decrease this dependency. More-detailed results, along with quantitative analyses, are also discussed to indicate how the hydrodynamics was influenced by other porous-medium characteristics and fluid properties, such as dissolution rate and molecular diffusion.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Alkindi, A.S., Al-Wahaibi, Y.M. and Muggeridge, A.H. 2011. Experimental andNumerical Investigations Into Oil-Drainage Rates During Vapor Extraction ofHeavy Oils. SPE J. 16 (2): 343-357. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141053-PA.
Bear, J. and Bachmat, Y. 1990. Introduction to Modeling of TransportPhenomena in Porous Media. Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Kluwer AcademicPublishers.
Butler, R. 1998. SAGD Comes of AGE! J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 37 (7): 9-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-07-DA.
Butler, R. M. 1994. Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage: Concept, Development,Performance and Future. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 33 (2):44-50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/94-02-05.
Butler, R. M. and Mokrys, I. J. 1991. A New Process (VAPEX) For RecoveringHeavy Oils Using Hot Water and Hydrocarbon Vapour. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 30 (1): 97-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/91-01-09.
Butler, R. M. and Mokrys, I. J. 1993. Recovery of Heavy Oils Using VaporizedHydrocarbon Solvents: Further Development of the VAPEX Process. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. 32 (6): 56-63.
Chow, L. and Butler, R. M. 1996. Numerical Simulation Of The Steam-AssistedGravity Drainage Process (SAGD). J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 35 (6):55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-06-06.
Das, S. K. and Butler, R.M. 1997. Extraction of Heavy Oil and Bitumen UsingVaporized Hydrocarbon Solvent. Pet. Sci. Tech. 15 (1-2):51-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916469708949644.
Das, S. K. and Butler, R. M. 1998. Mechanism of the Vapour ExtractionProcess for Heavy Oil and Bitumen. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 21(1-2): 43-59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-4105(98)00002-3.
Dunn, S., Nenniger, E. and Rajan, R. 1989. A Study of Bitumen Recovery byGravity Drainage Using Low Temperature Soluble Gas Injection. Can. J. Chem.Eng. 67 (6): 978-991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450670617.
Ennis-King, J., Preston, I. and Paterson, L. 2005. Onset of Convection inAnisotropic Porous Media Subject to a Rapid Change in Boundary Conditions.Phys. Fluids 17 (8): 084107-1-084107-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2033911.
Gelhar, L. W., Welty, C. and Rehfeldt, K. R. 1992. A Critical Review of Dataon Field-Scale Dispersion in Aquifers. Water Resour. Res. 28 (7): 1955-1974. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/92WR00607.
Ghesmat, K., Hassanzadeh, H. and Abedi, J. 2011a. The Effect of AnisotropicDispersion on the Convective Mixing in a Long-Term CO2 Storage inSaline Aquifers. AIChE J. 57 (3): 561-570. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.12292.
Ghesmat, K., Hassanzadeh, H. and Abedi, J. 2011b. The Impact of Geochemistryon Convective Mixing in a Gravitationally Unstable Diffusive Boundary Layer inPorous Media: CO2 Storage in Saline Aquifers. J. Fluid Mech. 673 (April): 480-512.http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112010006282.
Gunter, W. D., Perkins, E. H. and McCann, T. J. 1993. Aquifer Disposal ofCO2-Rich Gases: Reaction Design for Added Capacity. Energ.Convers. Manage. 34 (9-11): 941-948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0196-8904(93)90040-H.
Gunter, W. D., Wiwcharb, B. and Perkins, E. H. 1997. Aquifer Disposal ofCO2-Rich Greenhouse Gases: Extension of the Time Scale of Experimentfor CO2-Sequestering Reactions by Geochemical Modeling. Miner.Pet. 59 (1-2): 121-140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01163065.
Hassanzadeh, H., Pooladi-Darvish, M. and Keith, D. W. 2007. Scaling Behaviorof Convective Mixing, with Application to Geological Storage of CO2.AIChE J. 53 (5): 1121-1131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aic.11157.
Hidalgo, J. and Carrera, J. 2009. Effect of Dispersion on the Onset ofConvection during CO2 Sequestration. J. Fluid Mech. 640 (December): 441-452. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112009991480.
Koch, D. L. and Brady, J. F. 1985. Dispersion in Fixed Beds. J. FluidMech. 154 (May): 399-427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0022112085001598.
Nenniger, J. E. and Dunn, S. G. 2008. How Fast is Solvent Based GravityDrainage? Oral presentation given at the Canadian International PetroleumConference/SPE Gas Technology Symposium 2008 Joint Conference, Calgary,Alberta, Canada, 17-19 June.
Sahimi, M., Hughes, B. D., Scriven, L. E., et al. 1986. Dispersion in Flowthrough Porous Media-I. One-Phase Flow. Chem. Eng. Sci. 41(8): 2103-2122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0009-2509(86)87128-7.
Tan, C. T. and Homsy, G. M. 1986. Stability of Miscible Displacements inPorous Media: Rectilinear Flow. Phys. Fluids 29 (11):3549-3556. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.865832.
Yazdani, A. and Maini, B.B. 2005. Effect of Drainage Height and Grain Sizeon Production Rates in the Vapex Process: Experimental Study. SPE Res Eval& Eng 8 (3): 205-213. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89409-PA.
Yazdani, A. and Maini, B. B. 2008. Modeling of the VAPEX Process in a VeryLarge Physical Model. Energ. Fuel. 22 (1): 535-544. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef700429h.
Yorstos, Y.C. and Zeybek, M. 1988. Dispersion Driven Instability in MiscibleDisplacement in Porous Media. Phys. Fluids 31 (12):3511-3518. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.866918.
Zimmerman, W. B. and Homsy, G. M. 1991. Nonlinear Viscous Fingering inMiscible Displacement with Anisotropic Dispersion. Phys. Fluids 3 (8): 1859-1872. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.857916.