Improved Predictability of In-Situ-Combustion Enhanced Oil Recovery
- Anthony Kovscek (Stanford University) | Louis M. Castanier (Stanford University) | Margot Gerritsen (Stanford University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- April 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 172 - 182
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.6 Natural Gas, 4.3.4 Scale, 5.5.3 Scaling Methods, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods
- 6 in the last 30 days
- 1,450 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
In-situ combustion (ISC) possesses advantages over surface-generated steam injection for deep reservoirs in terms of wellbore heat losses and generation of heat above the critical point of water. ISC also has dramatically lower requirements for water and natural gas, and potentially a smaller surface footprint, in comparison with steam. In spite of its apparent advantages, prediction of the likelihood of successful ISC is unclear. Conventionally, combustion tube tests of a crude oil and rock are used to infer that ISC works at reservoir scale and estimate the oxygen requirements. Combustion tube results may lead to field-scale simulation on a coarse grid with upscaled Arrhenius reaction kinetics. As an alternative, we suggest a comprehensive workflow to predict successful combustion at the reservoir scale. The method is derived from experimental laboratory data and simulation models at all scales. In our workflow, a sample of crushed reservoir rock or an equivalent synthetic sample is mixed with water/brine and the crude-oil sample. The mixture is placed in a kinetics cell reactor and oxidized at different heating rates. An isoconversional method is used to estimate kinetic parameters vs. temperature and combustion characteristics of the sample. Results from the isoconversional interpretation provide a first screen of the likelihood that a combustion front is propagated successfully. Then, a full-physics simulation of the kinetics cell experiment is used to predict the flue gas composition. The model combines a detailed pressure/volume/temperature (PVT) analysis of the multiphase system and a multistep reaction model. A mixture identical to that tested in the kinetics cell is also burned in a combustion tube experiment. Temperature profiles along the tube, as well as the flue gas compositions, are measured during the experiment. A high-resolution simulation model of the combustion tube test is developed and validated. Finally, the high-resolution model is used as a basis for scaling up the reaction model to field dimensions. Field-scale simulations do not use Arrhenius kinetics. As a result, significant stiffness is removed from the finite-difference simulation of the governing equations. Preliminary field-scale simulation shows little sensitivity to gridblock size, and the computational work per timestep is much reduced.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Alexander, J. D., Martin, W. L. and Dew, J. N. 1962. Factors Affecting FuelAvailability and Composition During In Situ Combustion. J. Pet Tech 14 (10): 1154-1164. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/296-PA.
Aziz, K. and Settari, A., 2002. Petroleum Reservoir Simulation.Calgary: Blitzaprint.
Baena, C. J., Castanier, L. M. and Brigham, W. E. 1990. Effect of MetallicAdditives on In Situ Combustion of Huntington Beach Crude Experiments. ReportNo. DOE/BC/14126-26, US DOE, Bartlesville Project Office, Bartlesville,Oklahoma (August 1990).
Bousaid, I. S. and Ramey, H.J. Jr. 1968. Oxidation of Crude Oil in PorousMedia. SPE J. 8 (2): 137-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/1937-PA.
Brigham, W.E., Satman, A. and Soliman, M.Y. 1980. Recovery Correlations forIn-Situ Combustion Field Projects and Application to Combustion Pilots. J.Pet Tech 32 (12): 2132-2138. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7130-PA.
Burger, J. G. and Sahuquet, B.C. 1972. Chemical Aspects of In-SituCombustion—Heat of Combustion and Kinetics. SPE J. 12 (5):410-422. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/3599-PA.
Christensen, J., Darche, G., Dechelette, B., et al. 2004. Applications ofDynamic Gridding to Thermal Simulations. Paper SPE 86969 presented at SPEInternational Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium and Western RegionalMeeting, Bakersfield, California, 16-18 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86969-MS.
Cinar, M., Castanier, L. M. and Kovscek, A. R. 2009. Isoconversional KineticAnalysis of the Combustion of Heavy Hydrocarbons. Energ. Fuel. 23 (8): 4003-4015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef900222w.
Cinar, M., Hascakir, B., Castanier, L. M., et al. 2011a. Predictability ofCrude Oil In-Situ Combustion by the Isoconversional Kinetic Approach. SPEJ. 16 (3): 537-547. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148088-PA.
Cinar, M., Castanier, L.M. and Kovscek, A.R. 2011b. Combustion Kinetics ofHeavy Oils in Porous Media. Energ. Fuel. 25 (10):4438-4451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200680t.
Cinar, M. 2011. Kinetics of Crude Oil Combustion in Porous Media InterpretedUsing Isoconversional Methods. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford,California (2011).
Coats, K.H. 1980. In-Situ Combustion Model. SPE J. 20(6): 533-554. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8394-PA.
Coats, K.H. 1983. Some Observations on Field-Scale Simulation of the In-SituCombustion Process. Paper SPE 12247, presented at the SPE Reservoir SimulationSymposium, San Francisco, California, 15-18 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12247-MS.
Eclipse Version 2009 Software Manual. 2009. Houston, Texas: SchlumbergerLimited.
Fassihi, M. R. 1981. Analysis of Fuel Oxidation in In-Situ Combustion OilRecovery. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California(1981).
Fassihi, M. R., Brigham, W. and Ramey, H. J. Jr. 1984. Reaction Kinetics ofIn-Situ Combustion: Part 2—Modeling. SPE J. 24 (4):408-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9454-PA.
Friedman, H., L., 1964. Kinetics of Thermal Degradation of Char-FormingPlastics from Thermogravimetry: Application to a Phenolic Plastic. J. Polym.Sci. Pol. Sym. 6 (1): 183-195. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/polc.5070060121.
Gates, C.F. and Ramey, H.J. 1980. A Method for Engineering In-SituCombustion Oil Recovery Projects. J. Pet Tech 32 (2): 285-294. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7149-PA.
Gutierrez, D., Skoreyko, F., Moore, R.G., et al. 2009. The Challenge ofPredicting Field Performance of Air Injection Projects Based on Laboratory andNumerical Modelling. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 48 (4): 23-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/09-04-23-DA.
Hascakir, B., Castanier, L. M., and Kovscek, A. R. 2011. In-Situ CombustionDynamics Visualized With X-Ray Computed Tomography. SPE J. 16 (3): 524-536. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135186-PA.
Kristensen, M.R., Gerritsen, M.G., Thomsen, P.G., et al. 2007. EfficientIntegration of Stiff Kinetics With Phase Change Detection for ReactiveProcesses. Transport Porous Med. 69 (3): 383-409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-006-9079-y.
Kristensen, M.R. 2008. Development of Models and Algorithms for the Study ofReactive Porous Media Processes. PhD dissertation, Technical University ofDenmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark (January 2008).
Lapene, A., Debenest, G., Quintard, M., et al. 2011. Kinetics Oxidation ofHeavy Oil. 1. Compositional and Full Equation of State Model. Energ.Fuel. 25 (11): 4886-4895. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef200365y.
Lapene, A., Debenest, G., Quintard, M., et al. In press. KineticsOxidation of Heavy Oil. 2. Optimization by a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm.Energ. Fuel. (submitted 2012).
Lin, C. Y., Chen, W. H., Lee, S. T., et al. 1984. Numerical Simulation ofCombustion Tube Experiments and the Associated Kinetics of In-Situ CombustionProcesses. SPE J. 24 (6): 657-666. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11074-PA.
Marjerrison, D. and Fassihi, M. 1992. A Procedure for Scaling Heavy-OilCombustion Tube Results to a Field Model. Paper SPE 24175 presented at theSPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22-24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24175-MS.
Mamora, D. D. 1993. Kinetics of In-Situ Combustion. PhD dissertation,Stanford University, Stanford, California (1993).
Moore, R. G., Ursenbach, M. G., Laureshen, C. J., et al. 1997. ObservationsAnd Design Considerations For In-Situ Combustion Projects. Paper SPE 97-100presented at Annual Technical Meeting, Calgary, Alberta, 8-11 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97-100.
Nelson, T.W. and McNeil, J.S. 1961. How to Engineer an In-Situ CombustionProject. Producer's Monthly, 2-11 May.
Prats, M. 1982. Thermal Recovery. Vol. 7. Richardson, Texas:Monograph Series, SPE.
Sarathi, P.S. 1999. In-Situ Combustion Handbook—Principles and Practices.Report No. DOE/PC/91008-0374, US DOE, National Petroleum Technology Office,Tulsa, Oklahoma (January 1999).
STARS Version 2009 Users Guide. 2009. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: ComputerModelling Group Ltd.
Vyazovkin, S. 1997. Evaluation of Activation Energy of Thermally StimulatedSolid-State Reactions Under Arbitrary Variation of Temperature. J. Comput.Chem. 18 (3): 393-402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-987X(199702)18:3<393::AID-JCC9>3.0.CO;2-P.
Vyazovkin, S. 2001. Modification of the Integral Isoconversional Method toAccount for Variation in the Activation Energy. J. Comput. Chem. 22 (2): 178-183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-987X(20010130)22:2<178::AID-JCC5>3.0.CO;2-#.
Weijdema, J. 1968. Zur Oxydationskinetik flüssiger Kohlenwasserstoffe inporösen Medien in bezug auf unterirdische Verbrennung. Erdöl und Kohle 21: 520-526.
Zhu, Z., Bazargan, M., Lapene, A., et al. 2011. Upscaling for Field-ScaleIn-Situ Combustion Simulation. Paper SPE 144554 presented at SPE Western NorthAmerican Region Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 7-11 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144554-MS.
Zhu, Z. 2011. Efficient Simulation of Thermal Enhanced Oil RecoveryProcesses. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California(2011).