Removal of Manganese Tetraoxide Filter Cake Using a Combination of HCl and Organic Acid
- Abdullah Mohammed Al Moajil (Texas A&M University) | Hisham A. Nasr-El-Din (Texas A&M University)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 122 - 130
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods, 4.2.3 Materials and Corrosion, 1.11 Drilling Fluids and Materials
- manganese tetraoxide, filter cake removal, combinatation of HCl/organic acids, organic acids, lactic acid
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 379 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
The removal of filter cake generated by drilling fluids weighted with manganese tetraoxide (Mn3O4) particles may require strong acids [e.g., hydrochloric acid (HCl)]. Organic acids are not efficient with high-density drilling fluids (> 100 lbm/ft3) that contain large amounts of weighting materials (e.g., Mn3O4). A single stage of HCl treatment in a high-temperature and corrosive environment cannot be used. In certain cases, a two-stage treatment is recommended first to degrade polymers, and then to dissolve the solid particles in the filter cake. The reaction of acids with solid particles in the drilling fluids was investigated as a function of time at reaction temperatures up to 250°F. The solubility of the filter cake was examined using a high-pressure/high-temperature (HP/HT) filter press. Gas chromatography was used to analyze produced gases. Atomic absorption was used to measure the ion concentrations in spent acids, and X-ray diffraction was used to analyze solids. A safe, efficient, and economic technique that involves mixing HCl and an organic acid was developed to dissolve the filter cake in a one-stage treatment. The results showed higher removal efficiency (> 85%). The solubility of Mn3O4-based filter cake using 10 wt% HCl at 250°F was 80 wt%, but the reaction released chlorine gas, which is toxic and corrosive. HCl concentrations less than 5 wt%, the release of chlorine gas was not significant, but the solubility of the filter cake was low. Lactic acid alone did not dissolve the filter cake. However, a combination of 4 wt% lactic acid and 1 wt% HCl dissolved Mn3O4 particles completely at 190°F. At a temperature of 250°F, nearly 85 wt% of the filter cake was dissolved. This technique uses lower concentrations of HCl/organic acid, which would reduce the cost of the acids required for the treatment. Using HCl alone is an inexpensive approach but HCl cannot be used at concentrations above 5 wt% with Mn3O4-based filter cake. In addition, a third method was examined to remove the filter cake using a combination of organic acid and enzyme.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||9|
Al Moajil, A.M. and Nasr-El-Din, H.A. 2013. Formation Damage Caused by Improper Mn3O4-Based Filter-Cake-Cleanup Treatments. J Can Pet Technol 52 (1): 64-74. SPE-144179-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144179-PA.
Al-Salali, Y.Z., Ayyavoo, M.M., Al-Ibrahim, A.R. et al. 2012. Paradigm Shift in Reducing Formation Damage: Application of Potassium Formate Water Based Mud in Deep HPHT Exploratory Well. Presented at the SPE Kuwait International Petroleum Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 10-12 December. SPE-163301-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163301-MS.
Al-Yami, A.S., Nasr-El-Din, H.A., Al-Majed, A.A. et al. 2007. An Innovative Manganese Tetroxide/KCl Water-Based Drill-in Fluid for HT/HP Wells. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, California, USA, 11-14 November. SPE-110638-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/110638-MS.
Al-Saeedi, M.J., Al-Khayat, B., Enezi, D.R.A. et al. 2010. Successful HPHT Application of Potassium Formate/Manganese Tetra-Oxide Fluid Helps Improve Drilling Characteristics and Imaging Log Quality. Presented at the SPE Deep Gas Conference and Exhibition, Manama, Bahrain, 24-26 January. SPE-132151-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132151-MS.
Auger, N., Nierlich, N., and Girerd, J.J. 1991. Chemistry of the [Mn3O4]4+ Core. Relevance of the OEC in Plants. J. Inorg. Biochem. 43 (2–3): 374–374.
Carbajal, D.L., Burress, C.N., Shumway, W. et al. 2009. Combining Proven Anti-Sag Technologies for HPHT North Sea Applications: Clay-Free Oil-Based Fluid and Synthetic, Sub-Micron Weight Material. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, 17-19 March. SPE-119378-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119378-MS.
De Beni, G. 1975. Process for the Production of Hydrogen. Doc. 1408255, pt. UK.
Franks, T. and Marshall, D.S. 2004. Novel Drilling Fluid for Through-Tubing Rotary Drilling. Presented at the IADC/SPE Drilling Conference, Dallas, 2-4 March. SPE-87127-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/87127-MS.
Hawley, G.G. 2001. Manganese Citrate. In Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 14th edition, ed. R.J. Lewis Sr., 695. New York: Wiley-Interscience.
Howard, S.K. 1995. Formate Brines for Drilling and Completion: State of the Art. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 22-25 October. SPE-30498-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30498-MS.
Jacobson, C.A. 1946. Encyclopedia of Chemical Reactions, Vol. IV, 2174–2176. New York: Reinhold Publishing.
Kemmitt, T., Mills, A.M., and Gainsford, G.J. 2001. The Formation of Manganese Carboxylates from MnO and MnO2 and their Application in Lithium Manganate Precursors: X-Ray Crystal Structure of Manganese Lactate Trihydrate. Aust. J. Chem. 54 (1): 37-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/CH01012.
Kleverlaan, M. and Lawless, A. 2004. Through Tubing Rotary Drilling: A Cost-Effective Method for Sidetracking Wells in Mature Assets. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. SPE-91005-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/91005-MS.
Moroni, L.P., Fraser, J.R., Somerset, R. et al. 2008. Manganese-Tetraoxide-Weighted Invert Emulsions as Completion Fluids. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 13-15 February. SPE-112313-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/112313-MS.
Svendsen, Ø., Toften, J.K., Marshall, D.S. et al. 1995. Use of a Novel Drill-In/Completion Fluid Based on Potassium Formate Brine on the First Open Hole Completion in the Gullfaks Field. Presented at the SPE/IADC Drilling Conference, Amsterdam, 28 February-2 March. SPE-29409-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29409-MS.