- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Understanding the Thermo-Hydromechanical Pressurization in Two-Phase (Steam/Water) Flow and its Application in Low-Permeability Caprock Formations in Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Projects
- Sahar Ghannadi (University of Alberta) | Mazda Irani (RPS Energy) | Rick Chalaturnyk (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,126 - 1,150
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6.4 Primary and Enhanced Recovery Processes, 6 Reservoir Description and Dynamics, 6.3 Fluid Dynamics, 6.3.1 Flow in Porous Media, 6.4.5 Thermal Methods (e.g.,Steamflood, Cyclic Steam, THAI, Combustion), 6.4.9 Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD)
- thermal pressurization, caprock integrity, thermo-hydromechanical pressurization, two-phase (steam/water) flow , SAGD
- 18 in the last 30 days
- 189 since 2007
- Show more detail
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is one successful thermal-recovery technique applied in Alberta oil-sand reservoirs. When considering in-situ production from bitumen reservoirs, one must reduce viscosity for the bitumen to flow toward the production well. Steam injection is currently the most promising thermal-recovery method. Although steamflooding has proved to be a commercially viable way to extract bitumen from bitumen reservoirs, caprock integrity and the risk of losing steam containment can be challenging operational problems. Because permeability is low in Albertan thermal-project caprock formations, heating greatly increases the pressure on any water trapped in pores as a result of water thermal expansion. This water also sees a great increase in volume as it flashes to steam, causing a large effective-stress reduction. After this condition is established, pore-pressure increases can lead to caprock shear failure or tensile fracturing, and to subsequent caprock-integrity failure or potential casing failure. It is typically believed that low-permeability caprocks impede the transmission of pore pressure from reservoirs, making them more resistant to shear failure (Collins 2005, 2007). In considering the "thermo-hydromechanical pressurization" physics, low-permeability caprocks are not always more resistant. As the steam chamber rises into the caprock, the heated pore fluids may flash to steam. Consequently, there is a vapor region between the steam-chamber interface penetrated into the caprock and the water region within the caprock which is still at a subcritical state. This study develops equations for fluid mass and thermal-energy conservation, evaluating the thermo-hydromechanical pressurization in low-permeability caprocks and the flow of steam and water after steam starts to be injected as part of the SAGD process. Calculations are made for both short-term and long-term responses, and evaluated thermal pressurization is compared for caprocks with different stiffness states and with different permeabilities. One can conclude that the stiffer and less permeable the caprock, the greater the thermo-hydromechanical pressurization; and that the application of SAGD can lead to high pore pressure and potentially to caprock shear, and to subsequent steam release to the surface or potential casing failure.
AEUB Decision 99-22. 1999. Imperial Oil Resources Limited Cold Lake Production Project Mahkeses Development.
Agar, J.R. 1984. Geotechnical Behavior of Oil Sands at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures, PhD thesis. University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada (April 1984).
Anochie-Boateng, J.K. 2007. Advanced Testing and Characterization of Transportation Soils and Bituminous Sands. PhD thesis, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois.
Biot, M.A. 1941. General Theory of Three-Dimensional Consolidation, Vol. 12. Columbia New York, New York: Columbia University.
Biot, M.A. and Willis, D.G. 1957. The Elastic Coefficients of the Theory of Consolidation. J. Appl. Mechanics 24: 594–601.
Bird, R.B., Stewart, W.E., and Lightfoot, E.N. 1960. Transport Phenomena. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Bruno, M.S. and Nakagawa, F.M. 1991. Pore Pressure Influence on Tensile Fracture Propagation in Sedimentary Rock. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. & Geomech. Abstr. 28 (4): 261–273.
Butler, R.M. 1997. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall 1991, available in paperback from GravDrain Inc., Calgary, AB.
Butler, R. 1998. SAGD Comes of Age!, J Can Pet Technol 37 (7): 9–12. SPE-98-07-DA-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/98-07-DA-PA.
Chalaturnyk, R. 1996. Geomechanics of the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process in Heavy Oil Reservoirs. PhD thesis, University of Alberta, Alberta, Canada (April 1996).
Chen, G., Chenevert, M.E., Sharma, M.M. et al. 2003. A Study of Wellbore Stability in Shales Including Poroelastic, Chemical, and Thermal Effects. J. Petrol. Sci. & Technol. 38 (3–4): 167–176. http://dx.doi.org/10.16/S0920-4105(03)00030-5.
Collins, P.M. 2005. Geomechanical Effects on the SAGD Process. Presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1–3 November. SPE-97905-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97905-MS.
Collins, P.M. 2007. Geomechanical Effects on the SAGD Process. SPE Res Eval & Eng 10 (4): 367–375. SPE-97905-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97905-PA.
Collins, P.M., Walters, D.A., Perkins, T. et al. 2013. Effective Caprock Determination for SAGD Projects. J Can Pet Technol 52 (2): 112–119. SPE-149226-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149226-PA.
Delaney, P.T. 1982. Rapid Intrusion of Magma Into Wet Rock: Groundwater Flow Due To Pore Pressure Increases. J. Geophys. Res. 87: 7739–7756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/JB087iB09p07739.
Detournay E. and Cheng, A.H.D. 1993. Fundamentals of Poroelasticity, Chapter 5 in Comprehensive Rock Engineering: Principles, Practice and Projects, ed. C. Fairhurst, Vol. II, 113–171, “Analysis and Design Method.” Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.
Dusseault, M.B., Bruno, M.S., and Barrera, J. 2001. Casing Shear: Causes, Cases, Cures. SPE Drill & Compl 16 (2): 98–107. SPE-72060-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/72060-PA.
Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB). 2010. Total E&P Canada Ltd. Surface Steam Release of May 18, 2006. Joslyn Creek SAGD Thermal Operation, ERCB Staff Review and Analysis.
Fjær, E., Holt, R.M., Horsrud, P. et al. 2008. Petroleum Related Rock Mechanics, second edition, Elsevier.
Garnier, A., Saint-Marc, J., Bois and A. P., Kermanac’h, Y. 2008. A Singular Methodology to Design Cement Sheath Integrity Exposed to Steam Stimulation. Presented at the SPE/PS/CHOA International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 20–23 October. SPE-117709-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117709-MS.
Ghannadi, S., Irani, M., and Chalaturnyk, R. 2013. In Press. Evaluation of Induced Thermal Pressurization in Clearwater Shale Caprock in Electromagnetic Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage (EM-SAGD) Projects. SPE J. SPE-152217-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152217-PA.
Government of Alberta. 2008. Alberta’s Oil Sands: Resourceful. Responsible. ISBN 978-07785.
Government of Alberta. 2011. Alberta Oil Sands Industry (AOSID)—Quarterly Update Summer 2011, Reporting on the period: March 5, 2011 to June 3, 2011, www. albertacanada.com
Government of Alberta. 2012. www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/1715.asp.
Grant, M.A. and Sorey, M.L. 1979. The Compressibilities and Hydraulic Diffusivity of a Water-Steam Flow. Water Resources Res. 15 (3): 684–686.
Harvest Energy. 2009. Harvest Energy BlackGold Expansion Project—Application for Approval of the BlackGold Expansion Project, Vol. 1, Section 2.2.5—Caprock Characteristics, Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, Alberta (December 2009),
Havens, J. 2011. Mechanical Properties of the Bakken Formation. MS thesis, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado.
Irani, M. and Ghannadi, S. 2013. Understanding the Heat-Transfer Mechanism in the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process and Comparing the Conduction and Convection Flux in Bitumen Reservoirs. SPE J. 18 (1): 134–145. SPE-163079-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163079-PA.
Ito, Y., Hirata, T., and Ichikawa, M. 2001. The Growth of the Steam Chamber During the Early Period of the UTF Phase B and Hangingstone Phase I Projects. J Can Pet Technol 40 (9): 29–36. SPE-01-09-02-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/01-09-02-PA.
Keaney, G.M., Meredith, P., Murrell, S. et al. 2004. Determination of the Effective Stress Laws for Permeability and Specific Storage in a Low Porosity Sandstone, Gulf Rocks 2004. Presented at the 6th North America Rock Mechanics Symposium (NARMS), Houston, Texas, 5–9 June.
Kell, G.S. 1975. Density, Thermal Expansivity, and Compressibility of Liquid Water from 0°C to 150°C: Correlations and Tables for Atmospheric Pressure and Saturation Reviewed and Expressed on 1968 Temperature Scale. J. Chem. & Eng. Data 20 (1): 97–105.
Klimentos, T., Harouaka, A., Mtawaa, B. et al. 1998. Experimental Determination of the Biot Elastic Constant: Applications in Formation Evaluation (Sonic Porosity, Rock Strength, Earth Stresses, and Sanding Predictions). SPE Res Eval & Eng 1 (1): 57–63. SPE-30593-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30593-PA.
Krief, M., Garta, J., Stellingwerff, J. et al. 1990. A Petrophysical Interpretation Using the Velocities of P and S Waves (full-waveform sonic). The Log Analyst 31: 355–369.
Lachenbruch, A.H. 1980. Frictional Heating, Fluid Pressure, and the Resistance to Fault Motion. J. Geophys. Res. 85: 6097–6112.
Larsen, E.S. Jr. and Berman, H. 1934. The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals. Bull. In U.S. Geology Survey, Vol. 848, second edition, pp. 30–32.
Laurent, J., Bouteca, M.J., Sarda, J.P. et al. 1993. Pore-Pressure Influence in the Poroelastic Behavior of Rocks: Experimental Studies and Results. SPE Form Eval 8 (2): 117–122. SPE-20922-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20922-PA.
Lee, M.W. 2002. Biot-Gassmann Theory for Velocities of Gas-Hydrate-Bearing Sediments. Geophysics 67: 1711–1719.
Lee, M.W. 2003. Elastic Properties of Overpressured and Unconsolidated Sediments, U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 2214, http://geology.cr.usgs.gov/pub/bulletins/b2214.
Mase, C.W. and Smith, L. 1985. Pore-Fluid Pressures and Frictional Heating on a Fault Surface. Pure and Appl. Geophys. 122: 583–607.
Mase, C.W. and Smith, L. 1987. Effects of Frictional Heating on the Thermal, Hydrologic, and Mechanical Response of a Fault. J. Geophys. Res. 92 (B7): 6249–6272.
Matthäi, S.K. and Roberts, S.G. 1996. The Influence of Fault Permeability on Single-Phase Fluid Flow Near Fault–Sand Intersections: Results From Steady-State High-Resolution Models of Pressure-Driven Fluid Flow. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geolog. Bull. 80 (11): 1763–1779.
Neuzil, C.E. 1994. How Permeable Are Clays and Shales? Water Resour. Res. 30 (2): 145–150.
Oldakowski, K. 1994. Stress Induced Permeability Changes of Athabasca Oil Sands. MSc thesis, University of Alberta, Canada.
Raymer, L.L., Hunt, E.R., and Gardner, J.S. 1980. An Improved Sonic Transit Time to Porosity Transform. Presented at the 21st Annual Society of Professional Well Log Analysts Logging Symposium, Lafayette, Louisiana, 8–11 July.
Sarker, R. and Batzle, M. 2008. Effective Stress Coefficient in Shales and Its Applicability to Eaton’s Equation. The Leading Edge 27 (6): 798–804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1190/1.2944165.
Settari, A. 1992. Physics and Modeling of Thermal Flow and Soil Mechanics in Unconsolidated Porous Media. SPE Res Eng 7 (1): 47–55. SPE-18420-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18420-PA.
Shafer, J.L., Boitnott, G.N., and Ewy, R.T. 2008. Effective Stress Laws for Petrophysical Rock Properties. Presented at the 49th Annual Logging Symposium, Edinburgh, Scotland, 25–28 May.
Sheppard, M.C. 1989. Oil Sands Scientist: The Letters of Karl A. Clark, 1920–1949, Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta Press, Athabasca Hall.
Skempton, A.W. 1960. Terzaghi’s Concept of Effective Stress. In From Theory to Practice in Soil Mechanics, ed. L. Bjerrum, A. Casagrande, R.B. Beck, and A.W. Skempton, pp. 42–53, New York: John Wiley.
Smith, R.J., Alinsangan, N.S., and Talebi, S. 2002. Microseismic Response of Well Casing Failures at a Thermal Heavy Oil Operation. Presented at the SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference, Irving, Texas, 20–23 October. SPE-78203-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/78203-MS.
Southern Pacific Resource. 2011. Southern Pacific MacKay Thermal Project—Phase 2 Application and Environmental Impact Assessment, Part B, Section B3.6—Caprock Integrity, Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, Alberta (10 November 2011), http://www.shpacific.com/SAGD2-2012/November2011/Volume1/02PartB-Project%20Description.pdf.
Talebi, S., Nechtschein, S., and Boone, T.J. 1998. Seismicity and Casing Failures Due to Steam Stimulation in Oil Sands. Pure Appl. Geophys. 153: 219–233.
Terzaghi, K. 1923. Die Berechnung der Durchlaeassigkeitsziffer des Tones aus dem Verlauf der hydrodynamischen Spannungsercheinungen, Akad. Wiss. Wien Math Naturwissl Kl. Abt. 2A 132: 105.
Total E&P Canada Ltd. 2007. Summary of Investigations Into the Joslyn May 18th 2006 Steam Release, December.
Uwiera-Gartner, M.M.E., Carlson, M.R., and Palmgren, C.T.S. 2011a. Evaluation of the Clearwater Formation Caprock for a Proposed, Low-Pressure, Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Pilot Project. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October–2 November. SPE-147302-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147302-MS.
Uwiera-Gartner, M.M.E., Carlson, M.R., Walters, D. et al. 2011b. Geomechanical Simulation of Caprock Performance for a Proposed, Low Pressure, Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage Pilot Project. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. SPE-148886-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/148886-MS.
Vermeer, P.A. and de Borst, R. 1984. Nonassociated Plasticity for Soils, Concrete and Rock. HERON 29 (3): 1–64.
Verruijt, A. 1984. The Theory of Consolidation. In Fundamentals of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, ed. J. Bear and M.Y. Corapcioglu, pp. 349–368. Norwell, Massachusetts: Martinus Nijhoff.
Walls, J. and Nur, A. 1979. Pore Pressure and Confining Pressure Dependence of Permeability in Sandstone. Presented at the 7th Formation Evaluation Symposium, Well Logging Society, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5–7 May.
Wong, G. 2007. Geomechanical Characterization of Clearwater Formation Shales. Unpublished MSc thesis, University of Alberta, Canada.
Wong, R C.K. and Chau, K.T. 2004. Casing Impairment Induced by Shear Slip Along a Weak Layer in Shale Due to Fluid (Steam) Injection. Presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 8–10 June.
Wong, R.C.K. and Samieh, A.M. 2000. Geomechanical Response of the Shale in the Colorado Group Near a Cased Wellbore Due to Heating. J Can Pet Technol 39 (8): 30–33. SPE-00-08-01-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/00-08-01-PA.
Xie, J. and Zahacy, T.A. 2011. Understanding Cement Mechanical Behavior in SAGD Wells. Presented at the World Heavy Oil Congress, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 14–17 March. Paper WHOC11-557.
Yuan, Y., Xu, B., and Palmgren, C. 2011a. Design of Caprock Integrity in Thermal Stimulation of Shallow Oil-Sands Reservoirs. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. SPE-149371-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149371-MS.
Yuan, Y., Xu, B., and Palmgren C. 2013. Design of Caprock Integrity in Thermal Stimulation of Shallow Oil-Sands Reservoirs. J Can Pet Technol 52 (4): 266–278. SPE-149371-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149371-PA.
Yuan, Y., Xu, B., and Yang, B. 2011b. Geomechanics for the Thermal Stimulation of Heavy Oil Reservoirs-Canadian Experience. Presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12–14 December. SPE-150293-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150293-MS.
Zoback, M.D. and Byerlee, J.D. 1975. Permeability and Effective Stress. AAPG Bull. 59 (No. 1): 154–158.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.