- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Efficient Displacement of Heavy Oil by Use of Three Hydrocarbon Phases
- Ryosuke Okuno (University of Alberta) | Zhongguo Xu (University of Alberta)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- October 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 956 - 973
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods
- Multiphase Behavior, Displacement Efficiency, Gasflooding, Compositional Simulation, Multiphase Flow
- 5 in the last 30 days
- 440 since 2007
- Show more detail
Mixtures of oil with solvent gas can exhibit three-hydrocarbon-phase behavior at reservoir conditions, where the solvent-rich liquid (L2) phase coexists with the gaseous (V) and oleic (L1) phases. Three-hydrocarbon-phase behavior has been studied in the literature for carbon dioxide (CO2) floods and enriched-gas floods at relatively low temperatures. Prior research on heavy-oil displacement with enriched gas presented that displacement efficiency at a given throughput can be nonmonotonic with respect to gas enrichment. Slimtube experiments for such displacements showed that oil recovery increased first, then decreased, and increased again with increasing gas enrichment. An optimum displacement with a high efficiency of more than 90% was observed when three-hydrocarbon-phase flow was present. However, detailed mechanisms for such an optimum displacement with three phases have not been explained in the literature. In this research, we investigate mass transfer on multiphase transitions between two and three phases for three-hydrocarbon-phase displacements. Simple conditions are derived for the multiphase transitions that yield high local displacement efficiency by three hydrocarbon phases. The derivation is based on the generalized mass conservation for a multiphase transition in 1D gas injection. The conditions derived are applied to explain nonmonotonic oil recovery in quaternary displacements and the West Sak oil displacements. Oil recovery at a given throughput can be nonmonotonic with respect to pressure or gas enrichment. Such a nonmonotonic trend can occur when local oil displacement by three hydrocarbon phases becomes more efficient, but slower, with decreasing pressure or decreasing gas enrichment. An optimum pressure or enrichment can occur as a consequence of the balance between the local displacement efficiency and the propagation rate of three hydrocarbon phases. The West Sak oil displacement with enriched gas studied in this research yields a high displacement efficiency of more than 90% at 1.5 hydrocarbon pore volumes (PV) injected at 53% methane (C1) dilution.
Aghbash, V.N. and Ahmadi, M. 2012. Evaluation of CO2-EOR and Sequestration in Alaska West Sak Reservoir Using Four-Phase Simulation Model. Paper SPE 153920 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, 21–23 March, Bakersfield, California. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153920-MS.
Ahmadi, K. 2011. Advances in Calculation of Minimum Miscibility Pressure. PhD dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (2011).
Ahmadi, K. and Johns, R.T. 2011. Multiple-Mixing-Cell Method for MMP Calculations. SPE J. 16 (4): 733–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116823-PA.
Al-Quraini, A., Sohrabi, M. and Jamiolahmady, M. 2007. Heavy Oil Recovery by Liquid CO2/Water Injection. Paper SPE 107163 presented at EUROPEC/EAGE Conference and Exhibition, 11–14 June, London, UK. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/107163-MS.
Bluma, M. and Deiters, U.K. 1999. A Classification of Phase Diagrams of Ternary Fluid Systems. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 1 (18): 4307–4313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/A904863D.
Chang. Y.-B. 1990. Development and Application of an Equation of State Compositional Simulator. PhD dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (1990).
Chang. Y.-B., Pope, G.A. and Sepehrnoori, K. 1990. A Higher-Order Finite-Difference Compositional Simulator. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 5 (1): 35–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0920-4105(90)90004-M.
Chang. Y.-B., Lim, M.T., Pope, G.A., and Sepehrnoori, K. 1994. CO2 Flow Patterns Under Multiphase Flow: Heterogeneous Field-Scale Conditions. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (3): 208–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/22654-PA.
Creek, J.L. and Sheffield, J.M. 1993. Phase Behavior, Fluid Properties, and Displacement Characteristics of Permian Basin Reservoir Fluid/CO2 Systems. SPE Res Eval & Eng 8 (1): 34–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20188-PA.
Deiters, U.K. and Pegg, I.L. 1989. Systematic Investigation of the Phase Behavior in Binary Fluid Mixtures. I. Calculations Based on the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State. J. Chem. Phys. 90 (11): 6632–6641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.456280.
Deiters, U. and Schneider, G.M. 1976. Fluid Mixtures at High Pressures. Computer Calculations of the Phase Equilibria and the Critical Phenomena in Fluid Binary Mixtures From the Redlich-Kwong Equation of State. Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft fuer Physikalische Chemie 80 (12): 1316–1321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bbpc.19760801215.
DeRuiter, R.A., Nash, L.J. and Singletary, M.S. 1994. Solubility and Displacement Behavior of a Viscous Crude with CO2 and Hydrocarbon Gases. SPE Res Eval & Eng 9 (2): 101–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/20523-PA.
Dickson, J.L., Clingman, S., Dittaro, L.M., et al. 2011. Design Approach and Early Field Performance for a Solvent-Assisted SAGD Pilot at Cold Lake, Canada. Paper SPE 150639 presented at the SPE Heavy Oil Conference and Exhibition, Kuwait City, Kuwait, 12–14 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/150639-MS.
Dindoruk, B. 1992. Analytical Theory of Multiphase, Multicomponent Displacement in Porous Media. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California (1992).
Enick, R., Holder, G.D. and Morsi, B.I. 1985. Critical and Three Phase Behavior in the Carbon Dioxide/Tridecane System. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 22 (2): 209–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(85)85020-2.
Galindo, A. and Blas, F.J. 2002. Theoretical Examination of the Global Fluid Phase Behavior and Critical Phenomena in Carbon Dioxide + n-Alkane Binary Mixtures. J. Phys. Chem. B 106 (17): 4343–4564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp013402h.
Gardner, J.W., Orr, F.M. Jr. and Patel, P.D. 1981. The Effect of Phase Behavior on CO2-Flood Displacement Efficiency. J. Pet. Tech. 33 (11): 2067–2081. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8367-PA.
Gauter, K. 1999. Fluid Multiphase Behavior in Ternary Systems of Near-Critical CO2. PhD dissertation, the Technical University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany (1999).
Gauter, K., Heidemann, R.A. and Peters, C.J. 1999. Modeling of Fluid Multiphase Equilibria in Ternary Systems of Carbon Dioxide as the Near-Critical Solvent and Two Low-Volatile Solutes. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 158–160 (June): 133–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3812(99)00122-3.
Godbole, S.P., Thele, K.J. and Reinbold, E.W. 1995. EOS Modeling and Experimental Observations of Three-Hydrocarbon-Phase Equilibria. SPE Res Eng 10 (2): 101–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24936-PA.
Gregorowicz, J. and de Loos, Th.W. 1996. Modeling of the Three Phase LLV Region for Ternary Hydrocarbon Mixtures With the Soave-Redlich-Kwong Equation of State. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 118 (1): 121–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-3812(95)02845-5.
Guler, B., Wang, P., Delshad, M., et al. 2001. Three- and Four- Phase Flow Compositional Simulations of CO2/NGL EOR. Paper SPE 71485 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, 30 September–3 October, New Orleans, Louisiana. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/71485-MS.
Gupta, S.C., Gittins, S. and Picherack, P. 2005. Field Implementation of Solvent Aided Process. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 44 (11): 8–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/05-11-TN1.
Gupta, S.C., and Gittins, S.D. 2006. Christina Lake Solvent Aided Process Pilot. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 45 (9): X–X. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/06-09-TN.
Helfferich, F.G. 1981. Theory of Multicomponent, Multiphase Displacement in Porous Media. SPE J. 21 (1): 51–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8372-PA.
Henry, R.L. and Metcalfe, R.S. 1983. Multiple-Phase Generation During Carbon Dioxide Flooding. SPE J. 23 (4): 595–601. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/8812-PA.
Hornbrook, M.W., Dehghani, K., Qadeer, S., et al. 1991. Effects of CO2 Addition to Steam on Recovery of West Sak Crude Oil. SPE Res Eng 6 (3): 278–286. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18753-PA.
Inaganti, M.S. 1994. Miscible EOR Studies for Schrader Bluff Heavy Oil Reservoir, North Slope of Alaska: Slim Tube Displacement and Fluid Characterization. MS thesis, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska (1994).
Jessen, K., Stenby, E.H. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 2004. Interplay of Phase Behavior and Numerical Dispersion in Finite-Difference Compositional Simulation. SPE J. 9 (2): 193–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/75134-MS.
Johns, R.T. 1992. Analytical Theory of Multicomponent Gas Drives with Two-Phase Mass Transfer. PhD dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, California (1992).
Johns, R.T. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 1996. Miscible Gas Displacement of Multicomponent Oils. SPE J. 1 (1): 39–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/30798-PA.
Johns, R.T., Sah, P., and Sabramanian, S.K. 2000. Effect of Gas Enrichment Above the MME on Oil Recovery in Enriched-Gas Floods. SPE J. 5 (3): 331–338. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/65704-PA.
Johns, R.T., Yuan, H. and Dindoruk, B. 2004. Quantification of Displacement Mechanisms in Multicomponent Gasfloods. SPE J. 9 (3): 314–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88999-PA.
Khan, S.A., Pope, G.A. and Sepehrnoori, K. 1992. Fluid Characterization of Three-Phase CO2/Oil Mixtures. Paper SPE 24130 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, 22–24 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24130-MS.
Khataniar, S., Kamath, V.A., Patil, S.L., et al. 1999. CO2 and Miscible Gas Injection for Enhanced Recovery of Schrader Bluff Heavy Oil. Paper SPE 54085 presented at the SPE International Thermal Operations/Heavy Oil Symposium, Bakersfield, California, 17–19 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54085-MS.
Kohn, J.P., Kim, Y.J. and Pan, Y.C. 1966. Partial Miscibility Phenomena in Binary Hydrocarbon Systems Involving Ethane. J. Chem. Eng. Data 11 (3): 333–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je60030a012.
LaForce, T.C. 2005. Mathematics of Partially Miscible Three-Phase Flow. PhD dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (2005).
LaForce, T.C. 2012. Insight From Analytical Solutions for Improved Simulation of Miscible WAG Flooding in One Dimension. Computat. Geosci. 16 (4): 1007–1020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10596-012-9300-8.
LaForce, T.C., Jessen, K. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 2008a. Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part I. Structure of the Conservation Law. Transport Porous Med. 71 (2): 199–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-008-9311-z.
LaForce, T.C., Jessen, K. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 2008b. Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part II. Example Solutions. Transport in Porous Media 72 (1): 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-007-9137-0.
LaForce, T.C. and Johns, R.T. 2005a. Analytical Solutions for Surfactant-Enhanced Remediation of Nonaqueous Phase Liquids. Water Resour. Res. 41 (10): 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004WR003862.
LaForce, T.C. and Johns, R.T. 2005b. Composition Routes for Three-Phase Partially Miscible Flow in Ternary Systems. SPE J. 10 (2): 161–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/89438-PA.
LaForce, T.C. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 2009. Four-Component Gas/Water/Oil Displacements in One Dimension: Part III. Development of Miscibility. Transport Porous Med. 79 (2): 225–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11242-008-9311-z.
LaForce, T.C. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 2008. Development of Gas/Oil Miscibility in Water and Gas Injection. Paper SPE 116119 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 21–24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/116119-MS.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Li, D., Kumar, K. and Mohanty, K.K. 2003. Compositional Simulation of WAG Process for a Viscous Oil. Paper SPE 84074 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84074-MS.
Lohrenz, J., Bray, B.C. and Clark, C.R. 1964. Calculating Viscosities of Reservoir Fluids from Their Compositions. J. Pet. Tech. 16 (10): 1171–1176. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/915-PA.
Madarapu, R.R., Khataniar, S. and Dandekar, A.Y., 2002. A Simulation Study of Enhanced Recovery of Schrader Bluff Heavy Oil by Immiscible and Miscible Gas Injection. Paper SPE 76776 presented at the SPE Western Regional/AAPG Pacific Section Joint Meeting, 20–22 May, Anchorage, Alaska. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/76776-MS.
Malik, Q.M. and Islam, M.R. 2000. CO2 Injection in the Weyburn Field of Canada: Optimization of Enhanced Oil Recovery and Greenhouse Gas Storage with Horizontal Wells. Paper SPE 59327 presented at the SPE/DOE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, 3–5 April, Tulsa, Oklahoma. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59327-MS.
Mallison, B.T., Gerritsen, M.G., Jessen, K., et al. 2005. High Order Upwind Schemes for Two-Phase, Multicomponent Flow. SPE J. 10 (3): 297–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/79691-PA.
McGuire, P.L., Redman, R.S., Jhaveri, B.S., et al. 2005. Viscosity Reduction WAG: An Effective EOR Process for North Slope Viscous Oils. Paper SPE 94914 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Irvine, California, 30 March–1 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93914-MS.
McGuire, P.L., Spence, A.P. and Redman, R.S. 2001. Performance Evaluation of a Mature Miscible Gasflood at Prudhoe Bay. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (4): 318–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/72466-PA.
McKean, T.A.M., Thomas, A.H., Chesher, J.R., et al. 1999. Schrader Bluff CO2 EOR Evaluation. Paper SPE 54619 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 26–27 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/54619-MS.
Mizenko, G.J. 1992. North Cross (Devonian) Unit CO2 Flood: Status Report. Paper SPE 24210 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24210-MS.
Mohanty, K.K., Masino, W.H. Jr., Ma, T.D., et al. 1995. Role of Three-Hydrocarbon-Phase Flow in a Gas-Displacement Process. SPE Res Eng 10 (3): 214–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24115-PA.
Mushrif, S.H. 2004. Determining Equation of State Binary Interaction Parameters Using K- and L-Points. MS thesis, the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada (2004).
Mushrif, S.H. and Phoenix, A.V. 2008. Effect of Peng-Robinson Binary Interaction Parameters on the Predicted Multiphase Behavior of Selected Binary Systems. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 47 (16): 6280–6288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie800599t.
Ogino, K. 1988. Compositional Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Oil Recovery Experiments. MS thesis, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (1988).
Okuno, R. 2009. Modeling of Multiphase Behavior for Gas Flooding Simulation. PhD dissertation, the University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (2009).
Okuno, R., Johns, R.T. and Sepehrnoori, K. 2011. Mechanisms for High Displacement Efficiency of Low-Temperature CO2 Floods. SPE J. 16 (4): 751–767. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/129846-PA.
Okuyiga, M.O. 1992. Equation of State Characterization and Miscibility Development in a Multiple Phase Hydrocarbon System. Paper SPE 24937 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Washington, DC, 4–7 October http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24937-MS.
Orr, F.M., Jr. 2007. Theory of Gas Injection Processes. Holte, Denmark: Tie-Line Publications.
Patel, P.D., Christman, R.G. and Gardner, J.W. 1987. An Investigation of Unexpectedly Low Field-Observed Fluid Mobilities During Some CO2 Tertiary Floods. SPE Res Eng 2 (4): 507–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14308-PA.
Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D.B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen. 15 (1): 59–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Peters, C.J. 1994. Multiphase Equilibria in Near-Critical Solvents. In Supercritical Fluids, ed. E. Kiran and J.M.H. Levelt Sengers, 117–145. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Netherlands. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8295-7_5.
Polishuk, I., Wisniak, J. and Segura, H., 2004. Estimation of Liquid-Liquid-Vapor Equilibria in Binary Mixtures of n-Alkanes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 43 (18): 5957–5964. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie049797j.
Pontious, S.B. and Tham, M.J. 1978. North Cross (Devonian) Unit CO2 Flood-Review of Flood Performance and Numerical Simulation Model. J. Pet. Tech. 30 (12): 1706–1714. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6390-PA.
PVTsim Version 19.2.0. 2012. Lyngby, Denmark: Calsep International Consultants.
Reid, T. 1994. Study of Hydrocarbon Miscible Solvent Slug Injection Process for Improved Recovery of Heavy Oil From Schrader Bluff Pool, Milne Point Unit, Alaska. Annual Report for DE-FG22-93BC14864 for the US Department of Energy.
Rogers, J.D. and Grigg, R.B. 2001. A Literature Analysis of the WAG Injectivity Abnormalities in the CO2 Process. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (5): 375–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73830-PA.
Roper, M. 1989. An Experimental Study of CO2/West-Sak-Crude-Oil Phase Behavior. MS thesis, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska (1989).
Rowlinson, J.S. 1959. Liquids and Liquid Mixtures. London, UK: Butterworths Publications Ltd.
Rowlinson, J.S. and Freeman, P.I. 1961. Lower Critical Solution Points in Hydrocarbon Mixtures. Pure Appl. Chem. 2 (1–2): 329–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1351/pac196102010329.
Scott, R.L. and van Konynenburg, P.H. 1970. Static Properties of Solutions. van der Waals and Related Models for Hydrocarbon Mixtures. Discuss. Faraday Soc. 49: 87–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/DF9704900087.
Sharma, A.K., Patil, S.L., Kamath, V.A., et al. 1989. Miscible Displacement of Heavy West Sak Crude by Solvents in Slim Tube. Paper SPE 18761 presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Bakersfield, California, 5–7 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18761-MS.
Shu, W.R. and Hartman, K.J. 1988. Effect of Solvent on Steam Recovery of Heavy Oil. SPE Res Eng 3 (2): 457–465. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/14223-PA.
Solano, R., Johns, R.T. and Lake, L.W. 2001. Impact of Reservoir Mixing on Recovery in Enriched-Gas Drives Above the Minimum Miscibility Enrichment. SPE Res Eval & Eng 4 (5): 358–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/73829-PA.
Stein, M.H., Frey, D.D., Walker, R.D., et al. 1992. Slaughter Estate Unit CO2 Flood: Comparison Between Pilot and Field-Scale Performance. J. Pet. Tech. 44 (9): 1026–1032. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/19375-PA.
Taber, J.J., Martin, F.D. and Seright, R.D. 1997. EOR Screening Criteria Revisited - Part 1: Introduction to Screening Criteria and Enhanced Recovery Field Projects. SPE Res Eng 12 (3): 189–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/35385-PA.
Tanner, C.S., Baxley, P.T., Crump III, J.G., et al. 1992. Production Performance of the Wasson Denver Unit CO2 Flood. Paper SPE 24156 presented at the SPE/DOE Enhanced Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 22–24 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24156-MS.
Targac, G.W., Reman, R.S., Davis, E.R., et al. 2005. Unlocking the Value in West Sak Heavy Oil. Paper SPE 97856 presented at SPE International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1–3 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/97856-MS.
Tchelepi, H.A. and Orr, F.M. Jr. 1994. Interaction of Viscous Fingering, Permeability Heterogeneity and Gravity Segregation in Three Dimensions. SPE Res Eng 9 (4): 266–271. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/25235-PA.
Uzunov, D.I. 1993. Introduction to the Theory of Critical Phenomena. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.
van Konynenburg, P.H. 1968. Critical Lines and Phase Equilibria in Binary Mixtures. PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, California (1968).
van Konynenburg, P.H. and Scott, R.L. 1980. Critical Lines and Phase Equilibria in Binary van der Waals Mixtures. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 298 (1442): 495–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsta.1980.0266.
van Odyck, D.E.A., Lovett, S., Monmont, F., et al. 2012. An Efficient Shock Capturing Scheme for Multicomponent Multiphase Thermal Flow in Porous Media. P. Roy. Soc. Lond. A Mat. 468 (2147): 3413–3440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2012.0152.
Varotsis, N., Stewart, G., Todd, A.C., et al. 1986. Phase Behavior of Systems Comprising North Sea Reservoir Fluids and Injection Gases. J. Pet. Tech. 38 (11): 1221–1233. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/12647-PA.
Wang, Y., Lin, C.-Y., Bidinger, C., et al. 2003. Compositional Modeling of Gas Injection With Three Hydrocarbon Phases for Schrader Bluff EOR. Paper SPE 84180 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84180-MS.
Wang, X. and Strycker, A. 2000. Evaluation of CO2 Injection with Three Hydrocarbon Phases. Paper SPE 64723 presented at the International Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition in China, Beijing, China, 7–10 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/64723-MS.
Xu, Z. 2012. Displacement Efficiency of Solvent Floods with Three Partially Miscible Phases. MEng project report, the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (2012).
Yang, Q. 2006. Automatic Development of Global Phase Diagrams for Binary Systems in Pressure-Temperature Space. MS thesis, the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada (2006).
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.