- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Understanding the Steam-Hammer Mechanism in Steam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Wells
- Mazda Irani (RPS Energy)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- September 2013
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,181 - 1,201
- 2013. Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.2.1 Phase Behavior and PVT Measurements, 5.4.6 Thermal Methods, 5.3.9 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, 5.8.5 Oil Sand, Oil Shale, Bitumen, 5.4.10 Microbial Methods
- 2 in the last 30 days
- 319 since 2007
- Show more detail
Steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is one of the successful thermal-recovery techniques applied in Alberta oil-sands reservoirs. When considering in-situ production from bitumen reservoirs, viscosity reduction is necessary to mobilize bitumen, thereby flowing toward production well. Steam injection is currently the most effective thermal-recovery method. Although steamflooding is commercially viable, condensation-induced water hammer (CIWH) resulting from rapid steam-pocket condensation can be a challenging operational problem. In steamflooding, steam is injected through a well down to the reservoir, warming it to temperatures of 150 to 270°C (302 to 518°F) to liquefy the bitumen inside the reservoir (Garnier et al. 2008; Xie and Zahacy 2011).The liquified bitumen then drains to a lower well through which it is produced to the surface. In this process, steam pockets can become entrapped in subcooled condensate inside either the injection or the production tubing, causing a rapid collapse of the steam pocket. This type of rapid condesation is commonly referred to as "steam hammer."
In this study three different scenarios are explored to better understand steam-hammer situations in SAGD wells. These scenarios are at injectors or producers during the startup phase (or circulation phase), in the injection tubing during the injection phase, and in the production tubing during the injection phase. Modeling each of these scenarios indicates that a steam-hammer occurrence is likely in two of the three scenarios, but that its incidence can be mitigated. The likely scenarios for a steam-hammer occurrence are in either the injection or the production tubing during the startup phase, and in the injection tubing during the injection phase. Steam-hammer occurrences during the circulation period can be controlled by lowering the injection pressure and controlling water drainage into the reservoir. Flow shocks that occur as aresult of countercurrent flow limiting (CCFL) are very likely to take place in the injection tubing during the injection phase but can be controlled by injecting at a higher steam quality. The least likely scenario for a steam-hammer occurrence is in the production tubing during the injection phase. This is because the produced (or breakthrough) steam temperature would need to be more than 20°C higher than the produced-liquid temperature to start a water-hammer condition.
Agrawal, S.S., Gregory, G.A., and Govier, G.W. 1973. An Analysis ofHorizontal Stratified Two-Phase Flow in Pipes. Canadian J. Chemical Eng. 51: 280-286.
Babu, D.K. and Odeh, A.S. 1989. Productivity of a Horizontal Well. SPERes Eval & Eng 4 (4): 417-421. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18298-PA.
Barna, I.F., Imre, A.R., Baranyai, G. et al. 2008. Theoretical andExperimental Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena. InNuclear Power Plants. Proceedings of the International Congress(ICAPP 08), Anaheim, California, 8-12 June, pp. 1666-1672.
Barna, I.F., Imre, A.R., Baranyai, G. et al. 2010a. Experimental andTheoretical Study of Steam Condensation Induced Water Hammer Phenomena.Nuclear Engineering and Design 240: 146-150.
Barna, I.F., Varga, L., and Ézsöl, G. 2010b. Steam Condensation InducedWater Hammer Simulations for Different Pipelines in Nuclear Reactor. Paperpresented at the 8th International Topical Meeting on NuclearThermal-Hydraulics, Operation and Safety (NUTHOS-8), Shanghai, China, 10-14October.
Barron, J. 2007. Steam Blast Jolts Midtown, Killing One, New York Times.
Beggs, H.D. and Brill, J.P. 1973. A Study of Two-Phase Flow in InclinedPipes. J. Pet Tech 25 (5): 607-617. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/4007-PA.
Benjamin, T.B. and Ellis, A.T. 1966. Philosophical Trans. of theRoyal Society A, London, Vol. 260, pp. 221-240.
Bennion, D.B., Thomas, F.B., Schulmeister, B. et al. 2006. A Correlation ofthe Low and High Temperature Water-Oil Relative Permeability Characteristics ofTypical Western Canadian Unconsolidated Bitumen Producing Formations. Paperpresented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta,Canada, 13-15 June.
Bjorge, R.W. and Griffith, P. 1984a. Initiation of Water Hammer inHorizontal or Nearly-Horizontal Pipes Containing Steam and Subcooled Water, PhDthesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Bjorge, R.W. and Griffith, P. 1984b. Initiation of Water Hammer inHorizontal and Nearly Horizontal Pipes Containing Steam and Subcooled Water,ASME. J. Heat Transfer 106: 835-840.
Block, J.A., Rothe, P.H., Crowley, C.J. et al. 1977. An Evaluation of PWRSteam Generator Water Hammer, NUREG-0291.
Butler, R.M. 1991. Thermal Recovery of Oil and Bitumen, EnglewoodCliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Carlson, M.R. 2010. What Every SAGD Engineer Should Know About CondensationInduced Water Hammer, SPE Chapter Presentation, May 5.
Chen, Y.M. and Mayinger, F. 1992. Measurement of Heat Transfer at the PhaseInterface of Condensing Bubbles. International J. Multiphase Flow 18: 877-890.
Chiu, C., Tuttle, D., and Serkiz, A.W. 1986. Water Hammer in a PWRHorizontal Feedwater Line. Trans. of the American Nuclear Society52: 589-590.
Chou, Y. and Griffith, P. 1989. Avoiding Steam-Bubble-Collapse-Induced WaterHammer in Piping Systems, EPRI Report EPRI NP-6447.
Chou, Y. and Griffith, P. 1990. Admitting Cold Water into Steam-Filled PipesWithout Water Hammer Due to Steam-Bubble Collapse. Nuclear Eng. andDesign 121: 367-378.
Chun, M. H. and Nam, H.Y. 1992. Analysis of Waterhammer Induced bySteam-Water Counterflow in a Long Horizontal Pipe. InternationalCommunications in Heat and Mass Transfer 19: 507-518.
Chun, M.H. and Yu, S.O. 2000a. A Parametric Study and a Guide Chart to AvoidCondensation-Induced Water Hammer in a Horizontal Pipe. Nuclear Eng. andDesign 201: 239-257.
Chun, M.H. and Yu, S.O. 2000b. Effect of Steam Condensation onCountercurrent Flow Limiting in Nearly Horizontal Two-Phase Flow. NuclearEng. and Design 196 (2): 201-217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0029-5493(99)00298-8.
Chun, M.H. and Yu, S.O. 2000c. KAIST-CIWH Computer Code and a Guide Chart toAvoid Condensation-Induced Water Hammer in Horizontal Pipes. J. KoreanNuclear Society 32 (6): 618-635.
Coad, W.J. 1986. Steam Hammer: Causes and Cures, Heating/Piping/AirConditioning, 214-217.
Colebrook, C.F. and White, C.M. 1937. Experiments With Fluid FrictionRoughened Pipes. In Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Vol. 161, No. 906.
Daily News. 2007. How Cool Heads Handled Mayhem, Archived from the originalon 9 August.
Darby, R. 1964. The Dynamics of Vapour Bubbles in Nucleate Boiling.Chemical Eng.Sci. 19: 39-49.
Das, S.K. 2005. Wellbore Hydraulics in a SAGD Well Pair, PaperSPE/PS-CIM/CHOA97922, PS2005417 presented at the SPE/PS-CIM/CHOA InternationalThermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1-3November.
Duns, H. Jr., and Ros, N.C.J. 1963. Vertical Flow of Gas Liquid Mixtures inWells. Paper presented at the 6th World Petroleum Congress, Frankfurt,Germany.
Edmunds, N. 2000. Investigation of SAGD Steam Trap Control in Two and ThreeDimensions. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 39 (1): 30-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/00-01-02-PA.
Edmunds, N., and Gittins, S.D. 1993. Effective Application of Steam-AssistedGravity Drainage of Bitumen to Long Horizontal Well Pairs. J. Cdn. Pet.Tech. 32 (6): 49-55. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/93-06-05-PA.
Edmunds, N.R. and Good, W.K. 1996. The Nature and Control of GeyserPhenomena in Thermal Production Risers. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 35 (4): 41-48. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96-04-04-PA.
Ejiogu, G.C., and Fiori, M. 1987. High-Pressure Saturated-SteamCorrelations. J. Pet. Tech. 39 (12): 1585-1590. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15405-PA.
Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) Investigation Report. 2008. MEGEnergy Corp. Steam Pipeline Failure, May 5, 2007.
Farouq Ali, S.M. 1974. Steam Injection, Secondary and Tertiary OilRecovery Process, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Interstate Oil CompactCommission.
Florschuetz, L.W. and Chao, B.T. 1965. On the Mechanics of Vapor BubbleCollapse. J. Heat Transfer 87: 209-220.
Florschuetz, L.W., Henry, C.L., and Rashid Khan, A. 1969. Growth Rates ofFree Vapor Bubbles in Liquids at Uniform Superheats Under Normal and ZeroGravity Conditions. J. Heat Transfer 12: 1465-1489.
Garnier, A., Saint-Marc, J., Bois A.P. et al. 2008. A Singular Methodologyto Design Cement Sheath Integrity Exposed to Steam Stimulation. Paper presentedat the SPE/PS/CHOA International Thermal Operations and Heavy Oil Symposium.Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 20-23 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/117709-MS.
Gopalakrishna, S. and Lior, N. 1992. Analysis of Bubble Translation DuringTransient Flash Evaporation. International J. Heat and Mass Transfer 35: 1753-1761.
Griffith, P. 1997. Screening Reactor Steam/Water Piping Systems for WaterHammer, Report prepared for US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,NUREG/CR-6519.
Griffith, P. and Silva, R.J. 1992. Steam-Bubble Collapse Induced WaterHammer in Draining Pipes. Paper presented at the Pressure Vessels and PipingConference (ASME PVP), Vol. 231.
Gumerov, N.A. 1996. The Heat and Mass Transfer of a Vapour Bubble WithTranslatory Motion at High Nusselt Numbers. International J. MultiphaseFlow 22: 259-272.
Hagedorn, A.R. and Brown, K.E. 1965. Experimental Study of PressureGradients Occurring During Continuous Two-Phase Flow in Small Diameter VerticalConduits. J. Pet. Tech. 17 (4): 475-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/940-PA.
Hancox, N.L. and Brunton, J.H. 1966. Trans. of the Royal SocietyA, London. 260: 121-139.
Hao, Y. and Prosperetti, A. 2000. The Collapse of Vapor Bubbles in aSpatially Non-Uniform Flow. International J. Heat and Mass Transfer 43 (19): 3539-3550.
Hasan, A.R. and Kabir, C.S. 1992. Two-Phase Flow in Vertical and HorizontalAnnuli. International J. Multiphase Flow 18 (2):279-293.
Imre, A.R., Barna, I.F., Ézsöl, G. et al. 2010. Theoretical Study ofFlashing and Water Hammer in a Supercritical Water Cycle During Pressure Drop.Nuclear Eng. Design, in Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2010.03.008.
Irani, M. and Ghannadi, S. 2013. Understanding the Heat-Transfer Mechanismin the Steam-Assisted Gravity-Drainage (SAGD) Process and Comparing theConduction and Convection Flux in Bitumen Reservoirs. SPE J. 18(1): 134-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/163079-PA.
Ito, Y. and Suzuki, S. 1999. Numerical Simulation of the SAGD Process in theHangingstone Oil Sands Reservoir. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 38(9): 27-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99-09-02-PA.
Izenson, M.G., Rothe, P.H., and Wailis, G.B. 1988. Diagnosis ofCondensation-Induced Water Hammer, NRC Report NUREG/CR-5220, Vols. 1 and 2.
Kisman, K.E. 2001. Artificial Lift-A Major Unresolved Issue for SAGD. Paperpresented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference, Calgary,Alberta, Canada, 12-14 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2001-062-MS.
Kisman, K.E. 2003. Artificial Lift--A Major Unresolved Issue for SAGD. J.Cdn. Pet. Tech. 42 (8): 39-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/03-08-02-PA.
Legendre, D., Bore, J., and Magnaudet, J. 1998. Thermal and DynamicEvolution of a Spherical Bubble Moving Steadily in a Superheated or SubcooledLiquid. Physics of Fluids 10: 1256-1272.
Milton, P. 2007. NYC Blast Could Cost Businesses Millions, Associated Press(Forbes.com).
Moalem, D. and Sideman, S. 1973. The Effect of Motion on Bubble Collapse.International J. Heat and Mass Transfer 16: 2321-2329.
Moody, L.F. 1944. Friction Factors for Pipe Flow. Trans. of theASME 66 (8): 671-684.
Moss, S.A. 1903. General Law for Vapour Pressure. Physical Review 16: 356-363.
Mukherjee, N.J., Gittins, S.D., Edmunds, N.R. et al. 1995. A Comparison ofField Versus Forecast Performance for Phase B of the UTF SAGD Project in theAthabasca Oil Sands. Paper presented at the 6th UNITAR International Conferenceon Heavy Crude and Tar Sands, Houston, Texas, 12-17 February.
Perdomo, L., Damas, C.P., and Rincon, E.F. 2008. The Impact of SteamPlacement Control on SAGD Performance: A Numerical Study from the Orinoco HeavyOil Belt. Paper presented at the World Heavy Oil Congress (WHOC), Edmonton,Alberta, Canada. 10-12 May.
Perkins, G.W. 1979. Peak Pressures Due to Steam Bubble Collapse-InducedWater Hammer. B Sc thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
Plesset, M.S. and Chapman, R.B. 1970. Collapse of an Initially SphericalVapor Cavity in the Neighborhood of a Solid Boundary, Division of Engineeringand Applied Science, California Institute of Technology, Report No. 85-49,June.
Rattray, M. 1951. PhD thesis, California Institute of Technology.
Rayleigh, J.W.S. 1917. Philosophical Magazine 34(94).
Ruckenstein, E. 1959. On Heat Transfer Between Vapour Bubbles in Motion andthe Boiling Liquid From Which They Are Generated. Chemical Eng. Sci. 10: 22-30.
Ruckenstein, E. and Davis, J. 1971. The Effects of Bubble Translation onVapor Bubble Growth in a Superheated Liquid. International J. Heat and MassTransfer 14: 939-952.
Sahba, A. and Byron, K. 2007. Air OK, But Asbestos in Debris from N.Y. SteamPipe Blast, CNN, Archived from the original on 10 August.
Sharma, J. and Gates, I.D. 2011. Convection at the Edge of aSteam-Assisted-Gravity-Drainage Steam Chamber. SPE J. 16(3): 503-512. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142432-PA.
Swagelok Energy Advisors. 2009. Steam System Best Practices.
Taitel, Y. and Dukler, A.E. 1976. A Model for Predicting Flow RegimeTransitions in Horizontal and Near Horizontal Gas-Liquid Flow. AIChE J.22: 47-55.
U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1984. Evaluation of WaterhammerOccurrence in Nuclear Power Plants, NRC Report NUREG-0927, Revision 1.
Uwiera-Gartner, M.M.E., Carlson, M.R., and Palmgren, C.T.S. 2011. Evaluationof the Clearwater Formation Caprock for a Proposed, Low Pressure,Steam-assisted Gravity-drainage Pilot Project in Northeast Alberta. Paperpresented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver,Colorado, 30 October-2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147302-MS.
Van Duyne, D.A., Yow, W., and Sabin, J.W. 1992. Water Hammer Prevention,Mitigation, and Accommodation, EPRI NP-6766.
Vander Valk, P.A. and Yang, P. 2005. Investigation of Key Parameters in SAGDWellbore Design and Operation. Paper presented at the Canadian InternationalPetroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 7-9 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/2005-116-MS.
Vander Valk, P.A. and Yang, P. 2007. Investigation of Key Parameters in SAGDWellbore Design and Operation. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 46 (6):49-56. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-06-02-PA.
Wittke, D.D. and Chao, B.T. 1967. Collapse of Vapor Bubbles With TranslatoryMotion. J. Heat Transfer 89: 17-24.
Wylie, E.B. and Streeter, V.L. 1993. Fluid Transients in Systems,Prentice-Hall, 463 pages.
Xie, J. and Zahacy, T.A. 2011. Understanding Cement Mechanical Behavior inSAGD Wells. Paper WHOC11-557 presented at the World Heavy Oil Congress,Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 14-17 March.
Yow, W., Van Duyne, D.A., and Chiu, C. 1988. Analysis of Root Causes ofWater Hammer. Paper presented at the Third International Topical Meeting onNuclear Power Plant Thermal Hydraulics and Operations (NUPTHO-3), Vol. A10, pp.103-109.
Zolovkin, N.A., Negmatov, N.D., and Khabeev, N.S. 1994. Heat and MassTransfer of an Individual Vapor Bubble in Translational flow of an UnboundedLiquid Volume. Fluid Dynamics 29: 386-391.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.