Flow Units: From Conventional to Tight-Gas to Shale-Gas to Tight-Oil to Shale-Oil Reservoirs
- Roberto Aguilera (University of Calgary)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- May 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 190 - 208
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.8.4 Shale Oil, 5.8.1 Tight Gas, 5.8.2 Shale Gas
- flow units , tight and shale gas , production decline analysis , tight and shale oil
- 17 in the last 30 days
- 2,399 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Core data from various North American basins with the support of limited amounts of data from other basins around the world have shown in the past that process speed or delivery speed (the ratio of permeability to porosity) provides a continuum between conventional, tight-, and shale-gas reservoirs (Aguilera 2010a). This work shows that the previous observation can be extended to tight-oil and shale-oil reservoirs. The link between the various hydrocarbon fluids is provided by the word "petroleum" in the "total petroleum system (TPS)," which encompasses liquid and gas hydrocarbons found in conventional, tight, and shale reservoirs. Results of the present study lead to distinctive flow units for each type of reservoir that can be linked empirically to gas and oil rates and, under favorable conditions, to production decline. To make the work tractable, the bulk of the data used in this paper has been extracted from published geologic and petroleum-engineering literature. The paper introduces an unrestricted/transient/interlinear transition flow period in a triple-porosity model for evaluating the rate performance of multistage hydraulically-fractured (MSHF) tight oil reservoirs. Under ideal conditions, this flow period is recognized by a straight line with a slope of –1.0 on log-log coordinates. However, the slope can change (e.g., to –0.75), depending on reservoir characteristics, as shown with production data from the Cardium and Shaunavon formations in Canada. This interlinear flow period has not been reported previously in the literature because the standard assumption for MSHF reservoirs has been that of a pseudosteady-state transition between the linear flow periods. It is concluded that there is a significant practical potential in the use of process speed as part of the flow-unit characterization of unconventional petroleum reservoirs. There is also potential for the evaluation of production-decline rates by the use of the triple porosity model presented in this study.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||19|
Aguilera, R. 1978. Log Analysis of Gas-Bearing Fracture Shales in the Saint Lawrence Lowlands of Quebec. Paper SPE 7445 presented at the 53rd Annual Fall Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, Texas, 1–3 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/7445-MS.
Aguilera, R. 1980. Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Tulsa, Oklahoma: PennWell Books.
Aguilera, R. 1991. An Approximate Solution of Linear Flow in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 30 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16442-MS.
Aguilera, R. 2002. Incorporating Capillary Pressure, Pore Aperture Radii, Height Above Free Water Table, and Winland r35 Values on Pickett Plots. AAPG Bull. 86 (4): 605–624.
Aguilera, R. 2004. Integration of Geology, Petrophysics, and Reservoir Engineering for Characterization of Carbonate Reservoirs Through Pickett Plots. AAPG Bull. 88 (4): 433–446.
Aguilera, R. 2006. Sandstone vs. Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs: A Global Perspective on Porosity-Depth and Porosity-Permeability Relationships: Discussion. AAPG Bull. 90 (5): 807–810.
Aguilera, R. 2010a. Flow Units: From Conventional to Tight Gas to Shale Gas Reservoirs. SPE Paper 132845 presented at the Trinidad and Tobago Energy Resources Conference, Port of Spain, Trinidad, 27–30 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132845-MS.
Aguilera, R. 2010b. A Method for Estimating Hydrocarbon Cumulative Production Distribution of Individual Wells in Naturally Fractured Carbonates, Sandstones, Shale Gas, Coalbed Methane and Tight Gas Formations. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 49 (8): 53–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/139846-MS.
Aguilera, R.F., Eggert, R.G., Lagos, G. et al. 2009. Depletion and the Future Availability of Petroleum Resources. Energy J. 30 (1): 141–174.
Aguilera, R.F., Harding, T., Krause, F. et al. 2008. Natural Gas Production From Tight Gas Formations: A Global Perspective presented at the 19th World Petroleum Congress, Madrid, Spain, 29 June–3 July.
Aguilera, R.F., Ripple, R.D., and Aguilera, R. 2012. Link Between Rocks, Hydraulic Fracturing, Economics, Environment, and the Global Gas Portfolio. Paper SPE 162717 presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 October–1 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/162717-MS.
Almanza, A. 2011. Integrated 3D Geological Model of the Mississippian Devonian Bakken Formation, Elm Coulee, Williston Basin: Richland County, Montana, MSc thesis, Colorado School of Mines, 140 pages.
Ambrose, R.J., Hartman, R.C., Diaz-Campos, M. et al. 2010. New Pore-Scale Considerations for Shale Gas in Place Calculations. Paper SPE 131772 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 23–25 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131772-MS.
Andrade, J., Civan, F., Davegowda, D. et al. 2011. Design and Examination of Requirements for a Rigorous Shale Gas Reservoir Simulator Compared to Current Shale Gas Simulators. Paper SPE 144401 prepared for the SPE North American Unconventional Gas Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 14–16 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144401-MS.
Archie, G.E. 1950. Introduction to Petrophysics of Reservoir Rocks. AAPG Bull. 34: 943–961.
Arevalo-Villagran, J.A., Wattenbarger, R.A., and Samaniego-Verduzco, F. 2006. Some History Cases of Long-Term Linear Flow in Tight Gas Wells. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 45 (3): 31–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/06-03-01-MS.
Baihly, J., Altman, R., Malpani, R. et al. 2010. Shale Gas Production Decline Trend Comparison Over Time and Basins. Paper SPE 135555 presented at the SPE Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/135555-MS.
Baihly, J., Altman, R., Malpani, R. et al. 2011. Study Assesses Shale Decline Rates. In The American Oil and Gas Reporter.
Brohi, I., Pooladi-Darvish, M., and Aguilera, R. 2011. Modeling Fractured Horizontal Wells As Dual Porosity Composite Reservoirs—Application to Tight Gas, Shale Gas and Tight Oil Cases. Paper SPE 144057 presented at the SPE Western North American Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 7–11 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144057-MS.
Bustin, R.M., Bustin, A.M.M., Cui, X. et al. 2008. Impact of Shale Properties on Pore Structure and Storage Characteristics. Paper SPE 119892 presented at the SPE Shale Gas production Conference, Fort Worth, Texas, 16–18 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/119892-MS.
Chopra, A.K., Stein, M.H., and Ader, J.C. 1987. Development of Reservoir Descriptions To Aid in Design of EOR Projects. Paper SPE 16370 presented at the SPE California Regional Meeting, Ventura, California, 8–10 April. pp. 437–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/16370-MS.
Clarkson, C.R., Jensen, J.L., Pedersen, K. et al. 2012. Innovative Methods for Flow-Unit and Pore-Structure Analyses in a Tight Siltstone and Shale Gas Reservoir. AAPG Bull. 96 (2): 355–374.
Deng, H., Leguizamon, R., and Aguilera, R. 2011. Petrophysics of Triple Porosity Tight Gas Reservoirs With a Link to Gas Productivity. Paper SPE 144590 presented at the SPE Western North American Regional Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska, 7–11 May; SPE Res Eval & Eng 14 (5): 566–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/144590-MS.
DOE, US Department of Energy. 2012. New Models Help Optimize Development of Bakken Shale Resources, http://www.fossil.energy.gov/news/techlines/2012/12003-New_Models_Aid_Bakken_Shale_Develo.html (last entered March 3, 2013).
Ebanks, W.J. Jr. 1987. Flow Unit Concept—Integrated Approach to Reservoir Description for Engineering Projects, Abstract. AAPG Bull. 71 (5): 551–552.
Economides, M. and Oligney, R. 2000. The Color of Oil: The History, the Money and the Politics of the World’s Biggest Business, Spicewood, Texas: Round Oak Publishing Company.
Ehrenberg, S.N. and Nadeau, P.H. 2005. Sandstone vs. Carbonate Petroleum Reservoirs: A Global Perspective on Porosity-Depth and Porosity-Permeability Relationships. AAPG Bull. 89 (4): 435–445.
El Banbi, A.H. 1998. Analysis of Tight Gas Well Performance, PhD dissertation, Texas A&M University.
El Banbi, A.H. and Wattenbarger, R.A. 1998. Analysis of Linear Flow in Gas Well Production. Paper SPE 39972 presented at the SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–18 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39972-MS.
Freeman, J. and Eller, D.L. 2010. A Golden Opportunity in the Golden State: A Monterey Shale Primer, US Research, Raymond James and Associates, December 20.
Gonzalez, L. and Aguilera, R. 2011. Effect of Natural Fracture Density on Production Variability of Individual Wells in the Tight Gas Nikanassin Formation. Paper CSUG/SPE 149222-PP presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November; in press for 2013: J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 52 (2): 131–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149222-MS.
Gunter, G.W., Finneran, J.M., Hartmann, D.J. et al. 1997a. Early Determination of Reservoir Flow Units Using an Integrated Petrophysical Method. Paper SPE 38679 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38679-MS.
Gunter, G.W., Pinch, J.J., Finneran, J.M. et al. 1997b. Overview of an Integrated Process Model To Develop Petrophysical Based Reservoir Descriptions. Paper SPE 38748 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 5–8 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/38748-MS.
Hamm, B. and Struyk, E. 2011. Quantifying the Results of Horizontal Multistage Development in Tight Oil Reservoirs of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin: Technical and Economic Case Studies From a Reservoir Evaluator’s Perspective. Paper CSUG/SPE 149000 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Canada, 15–17 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149000-MS.
Hartmann, D.J. and Beaumont, E.A. 1999. Predicting Reservoir System Quality and Performance. In Exploring for Oil and Gas Traps, AAPG Treatise of Petroleum Geology, Handbook of Petroleum Geology, ed. Edward A. Beaumont and Norman H. Foster, pp. 9-1–9-154.
Javadpour, F., Fisher, D., and Unsworth, M. 2007. Nanoscale Gas Flow in Shale Gas Sediments. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 46: (10). http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/07-10-06-PA.
Kolodzie, S.J. 1980. The Analysis of Pore Throat Size and Use of Waxman Smit to Determine OOIP in Spindle Field, Colorado. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 21–24 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/9382-MS.
Kwon, B.S. and Pickett, G.R. 1975. A New Pore Structure Model and Pore Structure Interrelationships. Paper presented at the SPWLA 16th Annual Logging Symposium.
Lavoie, J.Y., Marcil, J.S., Dorrins, P.K. et al. 2011. Natural Gas Potential in the Saint Lawrence Lowlands of Quebec: A Case Study. J. Cdn. Pet. Tech. 50 (11): 71–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137593-PA.
Law, B.E. 2002. Basin-Centered Gas Systems. AAPG Bull. 86: 1891–1919.
Leguizamon, J. and Aguilera, R. 2011. Optimizing Hydraulic Fracturing of Naturally Fractured Tight Gas Formations. Paper SPE 142727 presented at the SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 31 January–2 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142727-MS.
Lopez, B. and Aguilera, R. 2013. Evaluation of Quintuple Porosity in Shale Petroleum Reservoirs. Paper SPE 165681 prepared for presentation at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 20–22 August. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165681-MS.
MacKenzie, W.T. 1975. Petrophysical Study of the Cardium Sand in the Pembina Field. Paper SPE 5541 presented at the 50th Annual Technical Meeting of SPE, Dallas, Texas, 28 September–1 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/5541-MS.
Magoon, L.B. and Beaumont, E.A. 1999. Petroleum Systems. Chapter 3 in Exploring for Oil and Gas Traps, AAPG Treatise of Petroleum Geology, Handbook of Petroleum Geology, ed. Edward A. Beaumont and Norman H. Foster, pp. 1–3.
Magoon, L.B. and Schmoker, J.W. 2000. The Total Petroleum System—The Natural Fluid Network That Controls the Assessment Unit. In Chapter PS in US Geological Survey Digital Data Series 60, US Geological Survey World Petroleum Assessment.
Martin, A.J., Solomon, S.T., and Hartmann, D.J. 1997. Characterization of Petrophysical Flow Units in Carbonate Reservoirs. AAPG Bull. 81: (5): 734–759.
Martin, J.P. 2005. The Utica and Hamilton Shales—The Next Fractured Shale Play: 4th Annual Gas Shales Summit: Production & Potential, December 1–2, 2005, Denver, Colorado, New York: Strategic Research Institute, 35 pp.
Martin, R., Baihly, J., Malpani, R. et al. 2011. Understanding Production From Eagleford-Austin Chalk System. Paper SPE 145117 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, Colorado, 30 October–2 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/145117-MS.
Moghadam, S., Mattar, L., and Pooladi-Darvish, M. 2010. Dual Porosity Type Curves for Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE/CSUG 137535 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19–21 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137535-MS.
Najurieta, H.L. 1980. A Theory for Transient Pressure Analysis in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs. J. Pet Tech 32 (7): 1241–1250. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/6017-PA.
Nelson, P.H. 2009. Pore-Throat Sizes in Sandstones, Tight Sandstones, and Shales. AAPG Bull. 93 (3): 329–340.
Olson, J.E, Laubach, S.E., and Lander, R.H. 2009. Natural Fracture Characterization in Tight Gas Sandstones: Integrating Mechanics and Diagenesis. AAPG Bull. 93 (11): 1535–1549.
Ortega C.E. and Aguilera, R. 2013. A Complete Petrophysical Evaluation Method for Tight Formations From Only Drill Cuttings in the Absence of Well Logs. Paper SPE 161875-PP presented at the SPE Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 30 October–1 November. Online: SPE J., May 24, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/161875-MS.
Pickett, G.R. and Artus, D.S. 1970. Prediction From Logs of Recoverable Hydrocarbon Volume, Ordovician Carbonates, Williston Basin. Geophysics 35 (1): 113–123.
Pittman, E.D. 1992. Relationship of Porosity and Permeability to Various Parameters Derived From Mercury Injection-Capillary Pressure Curves for Sandstone. AAPG Bull. 76 (2): 191–198.
Province of Alberta. 2013. Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Rules. Alberta Regulation 151/1971, with amendments up to and including Alberta Regulation 115/2013; www.qp.alberta.ca/documents/Regs/1971_151.pdf.
Rahmanian, M., Aguilera, R., and Kantzas, A. 2013. A New Unified Diffusion-Viscous Flow Model Based on Pore Level Studies of Tight Gas Formations. Paper CSUG/SPE 149223 presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. SPE J. 18 (1): 38–49, February 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149223-PA.
Rahmanian, M., Solano, N., and Aguilera, R. 2010. Storage and Output Flow From Shale and Tight Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 133611 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, 27–29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133611-MS.
Regan, L.J. 1953. Fractured Shale Reservoirs of California. AAPG Bull. 37: 201–216.
Reynolds, M.M. and Munn, D.L. 2010. Development Update for an Emerging Shale Gas Giant Field—Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada. Paper SPE 130103 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 23–25 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/130103-MS.
Ruppel, S.C. and Loucks, R.G. 2008. Black Mudrocks: Lessons and Questions From the Mississippian Barnett Shale in the Southern Midcontinent. The Sedimentary Record, June.
Shaw, D.B. and Weaver, C.E. 1965. The Mineralogical Composition of Shales. J. Sedimentary Petrology 35: 213–222.
Smocker, J.W. 2005. U.S. Geological Survey Assessment Concepts for Continuous Petroleum Accumulations 1995. In Chapter 13 of Petroleum Systems and Geologic Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province, Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, Version 1.
Sneider, R.M., King, H.R., Hawkes, H.E. et al. 1983. Methods for Detection and Characterization of Reservoir Rock, Deep Basin Gas Area, Western Canada. J. Pet Tech 35 (9): 1725–1734. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/10072-PA.
Solano, N.A. 2010. Reservoir Characterization of the Upper Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous Nikanassin Group, MSc thesis, Geoscience Department, GFREE Tight Gas Research Team, University of Calgary.
Sonnenberg, S.A. 2011. The Bakken Petroleum System of the Williston Basin, An Example of a Tight-Oil Play. Paper presented at the First Conference on Unconventional Oil and Gas Development, China University of Petroleum (Eastern China), Qindao, China, 4–5 July.
Walls, J.D., Diaz, E., Derzhi, N. et al. 2011. Eagle Ford Shale Reservoir Properties From Digital Rock Physics. Paper presented at the HGS Applied Geoscience Mudrocks Conference (AGC), The Woodlands, Texas, 7–8 February.
Wang, F.P. and Reed, R.M. 2009. Pore Networks and Fluid Flow in Gas Shales. Paper SPE 124253 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–7 October. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124253-MS.
Wattenbarger, R.A., El Banbi, A.H., Villegas, E.M. et al. 1998. Production Analysis of Linear Flow Into Fractured Tight Gas Wells. Paper SPE 39931 presented at the 1998 SPE Rocky Mountain Regional/Low Permeability Reservoirs Symposium, Denver, Colorado, 5–8 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/39931-MS.
Ziarani, A.S. and Aguilera, R. 2012. Knudsen’s Permeability Correction for Tight Porous Media. Transport in Porous Media (Springer) 91 (1): 239–260.