An Efficient Reservoir-Simulation Approach To Design and Optimize Unconventional Gas Production
- Wei Yu (The University of Texas at Austin) | Kamy Sepehrnoori (The University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- Journal of Canadian Petroleum Technology
- Publication Date
- March 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 109 - 121
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 4.1.2 Separation and Treating, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 2.5.4 Multistage Fracturing, 1.6.6 Directional Drilling, 5.8.2 Shale Gas, 3.2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Design, Implementation and Optimisation, 1.2.2 Geomechanics, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 1.6 Drilling Operations
- design of experiment, response surface methodology, shale gas, uncertainty analysis, optimization
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 1,594 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Shale-gas production has gained worldwide attention over the past several years. Production from shale-gas reservoirs requires horizontal drilling with multiple hydraulic fracturing to obtain the most economical production. However, there are high cost and uncertainty because of many inestimable and uncertain parameters (e.g., reservoir permeability, porosity, fracture spacing, fracture half length,fracture conductivity, gas desorption, geomechanics, and existing natural fractures). Therefore, the development of a way to quantify uncertainties and optimization of shale-gas production in an efficient and practical method is clearly desirable. In this paper, we present a user-friendly and efficient framework to obtain the optimal gas-production scenario by optimizing the uncertain factors by integrating several commercial simulators, an economic model, design of experiment (DoE), and response-surface methodology (RSM) with a global optimization search engine. Specifically, we use factorial design to screen insignificant factors and find the most influential design and uncertain factors; then, we use RSM to design over those most influential factors to fit a response surface using net present value (NPV) as the objective function; finally, we identify the most economical production scenario under conditions of uncertainty. Eight uncertain parameters [i.e., porosity, permeability, reservoir thickness, reservoir pressure, bottomhole pressure (BHP), fracture spacing, fracture half-length, and fracture conductivity] with a reasonable range on the basis of Barnett-shale information are investigated. Also, different gas prices are considered for the optimization process. This framework is effective and efficient for hydraulic-fracturing- treatment design and production-scheme optimization in unconventional gas reservoirs. It can contribute to providing guidance for engineers to modify the design of a hydraulic-fracture treatment before the actual fracture treatment.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||13|
Alramahi, B. and Sundberg, M.I. 2012. Proppant Embedment and Conductivity of Hydraulic Fractures in Shales. Presented at the 46th U.S. Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-27 June. ARMA-2012-291.
Bagherian, B., Ghalambor, A., Sarmadivaleh, M. et al. 2010. Optimization of Multiple-Fractured Horizontal Tight Gas Well. Presented at the SPE International Symposium and Exhibition on Formation Damage Control, Lafayette, Louisiana, USA, 10-12 February. SPE-127899-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/127899-MS.
Bhattacharya, S. and Nikolaou, M. 2011. Optimal Fracture Spacing And Stimulation Design For Horizontal Wells In Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, October 30-November 2. SPE-147622-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/147622-MS.
Britt, L.K. and Smith, M.B. 2009. Horizontal Well Completion, Stimulation Optimization, and Risk Mitigation. Presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, USA, 23-25 September. SPE-125526-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125526-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Lolon, E.P., Erdle, J.C. et al. 2010. Reservoir Modeling in Shale-Gas Reservoirs. SPE Res Eval & Eng 13 (4): 638-653. SPE-125530-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125530-PA.
CMG. 2011. IMEX User Manual. Calgary, Alberta: Computer Modelling Group.
Damsleth, E., Hage, A., and Volden, R. 1992. Maximum Information at Minimum Cost: A North Sea Field Development Study Using Experimental Design. J Pet Technol 44 (12): 1350–1356. SPE-23139-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/23139-PA.
Dejean, J.-P. and Blanc, G. 1999. Managing Uncertainties on Production Predictions Using Integrated Statistical Methods. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 3–6 October. SPE-56696-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/56696-MS.
Evans, R.D. and Civan, F. 1994. Characterization of Non-Darcy Multiphase Flow in Petroleum Bearing Formation. Final Report No. DOE/BC/14659-7, Contract No. AC22-90BC14659, School of Petroleum and Geological Engineering, Oklahoma University, Norman, Oklahoma (April 1994).
Forchheimer, P.F. 1901. Wasserbewegung durch Boden. Zeitschrift des Vereines deutscher Ingenieure 45 (5): 1781–1788.
Freeman, C.M., Moridis, G.J., Michael, G.E. et al. 2012. Measurement, Modeling, and Diagnostics of Flowing Gas Composition Changes in Shale Gas Wells. Paper presented at the SPE Latin American and Caribbean Petroleum Engineering Conference, Mexico City, Mexico, 16–18 April. SPE-153391-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/153391-MS.
Gao, C., Lee, J.W., Spivey, J.P. et al. 1994. Modeling Multilayer Gas Reservoirs Including Sorption Effects. Paper SPE 29173 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Conference & Exhibition, Charleston, West Virginia, USA, 8–10 November. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/29173-MS.
Gorucu, S.E., and Ertekin, T. 2011. Optimization of the Design of Transverse Hydraulic Fractures in Horizontal Wells Placed in Dual Porosity Tight Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 142040 presented at the SPE Middle East Unconventional Gas Conference and Exhibition, Muscat, Oman, 31 January–02 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/142040-MS.
Langmuir, I. 1918. The Adsorption of Gases on Plane Surfaces of Glass, Mica and Platinum. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 40 (9): 1361–1403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja02242a004.
Marongiu-Porcu, M., Wang, X., and Economides, M.J. 2009. Delineation of Application: Physical and Economic Optimization of Fractured Gas Wells. Paper SPE 120114, Paper presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 4–8 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/120114-MS.
Mengal, S.A., and Wattenbarger, R.A. 2011. Accounting for Adsorbed Gas in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 141085 presented at the SPE Middle East Oil and Gas Show and Conference, Manama, Bahrain, 25–26 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/141085-MS.
Meyer, B.R., Bazan, L.W., Jacot, R.H., and Lattibeaudiere, M.G. 2010. Optimization of Multiple Transverse Hydraulic Fractures in Horizontal Wellbores. Paper SPE 131732 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Conference, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 23–25 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/131732-MS.
Myers, R.H., Montgomery, C.D., and Anderson-Cook, C. 2008. Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments, third edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Peng, C.Y., and Gupta, R. 2003. Experimental Design in Determining Modeling: Assessing Significant Uncertainties. Paper SPE 80537 presented at the SPE Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference and Exhibition, Jakarta, Indonesia, 9–11 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/80537-MS.
Rubin, B. 2010. Accurate Simulation of Non-Darcy Flow in Stimulated Fractured Shale Reservoirs. Paper SPE 132093 presented at the SPE Western Regional Meeting, Anaheim, California, USA, 27–29 May. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/132093-MS.
Schweitzer, R., and Bilgesu, H.I. 2009. The Role of Economics on Well and Fracture Design Completions of Marcellus Shale Wells. Paper SPE 125975 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Charleston, West Virginia, USA, 23–25 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125975-MS.
Seidle, J.P., and Arri, L.E. 1990. Use of Conventional Reservoir Models for Coalbed Methane Simulation. Paper SPE 21599 presented at the CIM/SPE International Technical Meeting, Calgary, 10–13 June. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/21599-MS.
Stat-Ease. 2011. Design-Expert® 8 User’s Guide. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Stat-Ease, Inc.
Yu, W., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2013. Optimization of Multiple Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells in Unconventional Gas Reservoirs. Paper SPE 164509 presented at the SPE Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, 23–26 March. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164509-MS.
Zhang, J., Delshad, M., and Sepehrnoori, K. 2007. Development of a framework for optimization of reservoir simulation studies. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 59 (1-2): 135-146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2007.03.013.
Zhang, X., Du, C., Deimbacher, F. et al. 2009. Sensitivity Studies of Horizontal Wells with Hydraulic Fractures in Shale Gas Reservoirs. Paper IPTC 13338 presented at the International Petroleum Technology Conference, Doha, Qatar, 7–9 December. http://dx.doi.org/10.2523/13338-MS.