Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry Project to Reduce Hydrocarbon Leaks
- Jan-Erik Vinnem (Preventor, University of Stavanger) | Willy Røed (Proactima, University of Stavanger/Norwegian Oil and Gas Association)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Economics & Management
- Publication Date
- January 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 88 - 99
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6.5.5 Oil and chemical spills
- Work process, Verification of isolation plan, Hydrocarbon leaks
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 445 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
The prevention of hydrocarbon (HC) leaks is of great importance because they are the most critical precursor events that may lead to major accidents, such as in the case of Piper Alpha. The number of HC leaks on offshore production installations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) peaked just after the year 2000, with more than 40 leaks per year of an initial rate greater than 0.1 kg/s. The Norwegian Oil and Gas Association (Norwegian Oil and Gas) conducted a reduction project from 2003 to 2008, which resulted in only 10 HC leaks greater 0.1 kg/s in 2007. The number of leaks increased in the years after 2007, and there were 15, on average, in the period 2008–2010, without any significant increase in the number of installations. Norwegian Oil and Gas started a new project early in 2011 to reduce the number of HC leaks yet further. The initiative will be completed at the end of 2013, but has already started to show promising results. A study undertaken as part of the project concluded that more than 50% of the leaks are associated with the failure of operational barriers during human intervention into the process systems. Human and organizational factors predominate with respect to circumstances and root causes. This paper presents the HC-leak-reduction project, the rationale behind it, and its main activities, which aim to reflect the operational challenges. The activities tie in closely with the results of the analysis of the leaks during the period 2008 through 2011. The single operational barrier that has failed most commonly is the verification of critical activities. The paper also discusses the risk-reduction principles in a barrier context, with an emphasis on operational barriers, as well as some of the challenges faced in the project.
|File Size||613 KB||Number of Pages||12|
Aven, T. 2008. Risk Analysis: Assessing Uncertainties Beyond Expected Values and Probabilities. United Kingdom: Wiley.
Bedford, T. and Cooke, R. 2001. Probabilistic Risk Analysis. Foundations and Methods. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Chemical Safety Board. 2007. Investigation Report Refinery Explosion and Fire. http://www.csb.gov/assets/document/CSBFinalReportBP.pdf.
Cullen, W.D. 1990. The Public Inquiry Into the Piper Alpha Disaster. London: Department of Energy.
Haugen, S., Seljelid, J., Sklet, S. et al. 2007. BORA Generalization Report, Preventor Report 200254-07, 29.1.2007.
Haugen, S., Vinnem, J.E., and Seljelid, J. 2011. Analysis of Causes of Hydrocarbon Leaks From Process Plants. Paper SPE 140808 presented at SPE European Health, Safety, and Environmental Conference in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Vienna, Austria, 22–24 February. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140808-MS.
Høivik, D., Tharaldsen, J.E., Baste, V. et al. 2009. What Is Most Important for Safety Climate: The Company Belonging or the Local Working Environment?—A Study From the Norwegian Offshore Industry. Safety Sci. 47 (10): 1324–1331.
Hopkins, A. 2000. Lessons From Longford: The Esso Gas Plant Explosion, Sydney: CCH Australia Ltd.
International Organization for Standardization—ISO. 2009. ISO 31000:2009 Risk Management—Principles and Guidelines.
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association. 2012a. Website: www.norskoljeoggass.no/hydrokarbonlekkasjer. In Norwegian only.
Norwegian Oil and Gas Association. 2012b. Best Practice on Isolation During Work on HC Containing Equipment: Planning, Isolation and Reinstatement. In Norwegian only.
Presidential Commission. 2011. Deepwater, the Gulf Oil Disaster and the Future of Offshore Drilling, Report to the President, National Commission on the DP Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill and Offshore Drilling, January. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-OILCOMMISSION/pdf/GPO-OILCOMMISSION.pdf.
PSA (Petroleum Safety Authority). 2012a. Trends in Risk Level in the Petroleum Activity. RNNP 2011 report. April (Summary report in English, other reports only in Norwegian).
PSA. 2012b. Principles on Barrier Management in the Petroleum Industry. In Norwegian only. Original title: “Prinsipper for barrierestyring i petroleumsvirksomheten”. http://www.ptil.no/getfile.php/PDF/Prinsipper%20for%20barrierestyring%20i%20petroleumsvirksomheten.pdf.
PSA. 2012c. Trends in Risk Level. Annual report published by the Petroleum Safety Authorities. Website: http://www.ptil.no/trends-in-risk-level/category155.html?lang=en_US.
PSA. 2013. Trends in Risk Level in the Petroleum Activity. RNNP 2012 report. (Summary report in English, other reports only in Norwegian), 25.4.2013, Petroleum Safety Authority.
Røed, W. and Vinnem, J.E. 2013. Initial Achievements in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry Project to Reduce the Number of Hydrocarbon Leaks. Paper presented at ESREL 2013, Amsterdam, 29 September–2 October.
Røed, W., Vinnem, J.E., and Nistov, A. 2012. Causes and Contributing Factors to Hydrocarbon Leaks on Norwegian Offshore Installations. Paper SPE 156846 presented at the SPE/APPEA International Conference on Health, Safety, and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, Perth, Australia, 11–13 September. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/156846-MS.
Rollenhagen, C. 2011. Event Investigations at Nuclear Power Plants in Sweden: Reflections About a Method and Some Associated Practices. Safety Sci. 49: 21–26.
Sklet, S., Aven, T., Hauge, S. et al. 2005. Incorporating Human and Organizational Factors in Risk Analysis for Offshore Installations. In Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL), Tri City, Poland.
Step Change in Safety. 2010. Human Factors—How to Take the First Steps...and Presenter’s Guide, http://www.stepchangeinsafety.net/knowledgecentre/publications/publication.cfm/publicationid/22.
Step Change in Safety. 2012. Website: www.stepchangeinsafety.net/.
Vinnem, J.E. 2012a. Use of Accident Precursor Event Investigations in the Understanding of Major Hazard Risk Potential in the Norwegian Offshore Industry. J. Risk and Reliability 227/1: 66–79.
Vinnem, J.E. 2012b. On the Analysis of Hydrocarbon Leaks From Offshore Installations in a Work Process Context. Paper presented at ESREL 2012/PSAM11, Helsinki, 25–29 June.
Vinnem, J.E., Aven, T., Sørum, M. et al. 2003. Structured Approach to Risk Indicators for Major Hazards. In Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL), Maastrict.
Vinnem, J.E., Bye, R., Gran, B.A. et al. 2012. Risk Modelling of Maintenance Work on Major Process Equipment on Offshore Petroleum Installations. J. Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 25 (2): 274–292.
Vinnem, J.E. and Røed W. 2013. Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry Project to Reduce the Number of Hydrocarbon Leaks With emphasis on Operational Barriers Improvement. Paper SPE 164981 presented at the SPE European Health, Safety, and Environmental Conference and Exhibition, London, 16–18 April. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/164981-MS.
Vinnem, J.E., Seljelid, J., Haugen, S. et al. 2007. Analysis of Hydrocarbon Leaks on Offshore Installations. Paper presented at ESREL, Stavanger, 25–27 June.