- Boolean operators
- This OR that
This AND that
This NOT that
- Must include "This" and "That"
- This That
- Must not include "That"
- This -That
- "This" is optional
- This +That
- Exact phrase "This That"
- "This That"
- (this AND that) OR (that AND other)
- Specifying fields
- publisher:"Publisher Name"
author:(Smith OR Jones)
Experimental and Modeling Study of Salt Precipitation During Injection of CO2 Contaminated with H2S into Depleted Gas Fields in the Northeast of the Netherlands
- Panteha Bolourinejad (Groningen University) | Rien Herber (Groningen university)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Journal
- Publication Date
- December 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 1,058 - 1,068
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 6.11.1 CO2 Sequestration, 6 Reservoir Description and Dynamics, 6.11 Reservoir Engineering of Subsurface Storage
- CO2 storage
- 13 in the last 30 days
- 165 since 2007
- Show more detail
Depleted gas fields are among the most probable candidates for subsurface storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). With proven reservoir and qualified seal, these fields have retained gas over geological time scales. However, unlike methane, injection of CO2 changes the pH of the brine because of the formation of carbonic acid. Subsequent dissolution/precipitation of minerals changes the porosity/permeability of reservoir and caprock. Thus, for adequate, safe, and effective CO2 storage, the subsurface system needs to be fully understood. An important aspect for subsurface storage of CO2 is purity of this gas, which influences risk and cost of the process. To investigate the effects of CO2 plus impurities in a real case example, we have carried out medium-term (30-day) laboratory experiments (300 bar, 100°C) on reservoir and caprock core samples from gas fields in the northeast of the Netherlands. In addition, we attempted to determine the maximum allowable concentration of one of the possible impurities in the CO2 stream [hydrogen sulfide (H2S)] in these fields. The injected gases - CO2, CO2+100 ppm H2S, and CO2+5,000 ppm H2S - were reacting with core samples and brine (81 g/L Na+, 173 g/L Cl–, 22 g/L Ca2+, 23 g/L Mg2+, 1.5 g/L K+, and 0.2 g/L SO42–). Before and after the experiments, the core samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineralogical variations. The permeability of the samples was also measured. After the experiments, dissolution of feldspars, carbonates and kaolinite was observed as expected. In addition, we observed fresh precipitation of kaolinite. However, two significant results were obtained when adding H2S to the CO2 stream. First, we observed precipitation of sulfate minerals (anhydrite and pyrite). This differs from results after pure CO2 injection, where dissolution of anhydrite was dominant in the samples. Second, severe salt precipitation took place in the presence of H2S. This is mainly caused by the nucleation of anhydrite and pyrite, which enabled halite precipitation, and to a lesser degree by the higher solubility of H2S in water and higher water content of the gas phase in the presence of H2S. This was confirmed by the use of CMG-GEM (CMG 2011) modeling software. The precipitation of halite, anhydrite, and pyrite affects the permeability of the samples in different ways. After pure CO2 and CO2+100 ppm H2S injection, permeability of the reservoir samples increased by 10–30% and =3%, respectively. In caprock samples, permeability increased by a factor of 3–10 and 1.3, respectively. However, after addition of 5,000 ppm H2S, the permeability of all samples decreased significantly. In the case of CO2+100 ppm H2S, halite, anhydrite, and pyrite precipitation did balance mineral dissolution, causing minimal variation in the permeability of samples.
Audigane, P., Gaus, I., Czernichowski-Lauriol, I., et al. 2007. Two-Dimensional Reactive Transport Modeling of CO2 Injection in a Saline Aquifer at the Sleipner Site, North Sea. Am. J. Sci. 307: 974–1008. http://dx.doi.org/10.2475/07.2007.02.
Bachu, S. 2008. CO2 Storage in Geological Media: Role, Means, Status and Barriers to Deployment. Prog. Energ. Combust. 34 (2): 254–273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pecs.2007.10.001.
Balashov, V.N., Guthrie, G.D., Hakala, J.A., et al. 2013. Predictive Modeling of CO2 Sequestration in Deep Saline Sandstone Reservoirs: Impacts of Geochemical Kinetics. Appl. Geochem. 30 (March): 41–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2012.08.016.
Battistelli, A. and Marcolini, M. 2009. TMGAS: A New TOUGH2 EOS Module for the Numerical Simulation of Gas Mixtures Injection in Geological Structures. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Con. 3 (4): 481–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.12.002.
Benbow, S.J., Metcalfe, R., and Wilson, J. C. 2008. Pitzer Databases for Use in Thermodynamic Modeling. Technical Report No. QRS-3021A-TM1, Quintessa Limited, Henley-on-Thames, UK (unpublished).
Bolourinejad, P., Shoeibi Omran, P., and Herber, R. 2014. Effect of Reactive Surface Area of Minerals on Mineralization and Carbon Dioxide Trapping in a Depleted Gas Reservoir. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Con. 21 (February): 11–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2013.11.020.
Bos, C.F.M. 2007. Underground Storage and Sequestration. In Geology of the Netherlands, ed. Th.E. Wong, D.A.J. Batjes, and J. De Jager, 335–340. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Canjar, L.N. and Manning, F.S. 1967. Thermodynamic Properties and Reduced Correlations for Gases. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company.
Computer Modeling Group (CMG). 2011. User’s Guide GEM: Advanced Compositional Reservoir Simulator. Version 2011. Calgary, Alberta, Canada: Computer Modeling Group Ltd.
Gaus, I. 2010. Role and Impact of CO2-Rock Interactions during CO2 Storage in Sedimentary Rocks. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Con. 4 (1): 73–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.09.015.
Geluk, M.C. 2007. Permian. In Geology of the Netherlands, ed. Th.E. Wong, D.A.J. Batjes, and J. De Jager, 63–83. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Grötsch, J., 2011. The Groningen Gas Field: Fifty Years of Exploration and Gas Production from a Permian Dryland Reservoir. In The Permian Rotliegend of the Netherlands, ed. J. Grötsch and R. Gaupp, Vol. 98, 11–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2110/pec.11.98.0011.
Hangx, S., Spiers, C., and Peach, C., 2009. The Mechanical Behavior of Anhydrite and Effect of CO2 Injection. Energy Procedia 1 (1): 3485–3492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.140.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). 2005. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage. New York City, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jager, J.D. and Geluk, M. C. 2007. Petroleum Geology. In Geology of the Netherlands, ed. Th.E. Wong, D.A.J. Batjes, and J. De Jager, 241–264. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Kühn, M., Asmus, S., Azzam, R., et al. 2006. CO2 Trap–Development and Evaluation of Innovative Strategies for Mineral and Physical Trapping of CO2 in Geological Formations and of Long-Term Cap Rock Integrity. Progress Report/Feasibility Study (Period 01.04.2005 – 25.01.2006), RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
Lammers, K., Murphy, R., Riendeau, A., et al. 2011. CO2 Sequestration through Mineral Carbonation of Iron Oxyhydroxides. Environ. Sci. Tech. 45 (2011): 10422–10428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es202571k.
Li, Y. K. and Nghiem, X., 1986. Phase Equilbria of Oil, Gas and Water/Brine Mixtures from a Cubic Equation of State and Henry’s Law. Can. J. Chem. Eng. 64 (3): 486–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cjce.5450640319.
Murphy, R., Lammers, K., Smirnov, A., et al. 2010. Ferrihydrite Phase Transformation in the Presence of Aqueous Sulfide and Supercritical CO2. Chem. Geol. 271 (1–2): 26–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2009.12.008.
Murphy, R., Lammers, K., Smirnov, A., et al. 2011. Hematite Reactivity with Supercritical CO2 and Aqueous Sulfide. Chem. Geol. 283 (3–4): 210–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2011.01.018.
Palandri, J., and Kharaka, Y.K. 2004. A Compilation of Rate Parameters of Water-Mineral Interaction Kinetics for Application to Geochemical Modeling. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report No. 04-1068, US DOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Menlo Park, California (March 2004).
Palandri, J.L., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2005. Ferric Iron-Bearing Sediments as a Mineral Trap for CO2 Sequestration: Iron Reduction Using Sulfur-Bearing Waste Gas. Chem. Geol. 217 (3–4): 351–364. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2004.12.018.
Palandri, J.L., Rosenbauer, R.J., and Kharaka, Y.K., 2005. Ferric Iron in Sediments as a Novel CO2 Mineral Trap: CO2–SO2 Reaction with Hematite. Appl. Geochem. 20 (11): 2038–2048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2005.06.005.
Parkhurst, D.L. and Appelo, C.A.J. 1999. User’s Guide to PHREEQC (Version 2)–A Computer Program for Speciation, Batch-Reaction, One-Dimensional Transport, and Inverse Geochemical Calculations. US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report No. 99-4259.
Peng, D. Y. and Robinson, D. B. 1976. A New Two-Constant Equation of State. Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. 15 (1): 59–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/i160057a011.
Rowe, A.M. and Chou, J.C.S., 1970. Pressure-Volume-Temperature-Concentration Relation of Aqueous NaCl Solutions. J. Eng. Chem. Data 15 (1): 61–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/je60044a016.
Saul, A. and Wagner, W. 1987. International Equations for the Saturation Properties of Ordinary Water Substance. J. Phys. Chem. 16 (4): 893–901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.555926.
Scherer, G.W., and Huet, B. 2009. Carbonation of Wellbore Cement by CO2 Diffusion from Caprock. Int. J. Greenh. Gas Con. 3 (6): 731–735. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2009.08.002.
Wolery, T.J. 1992. EQ3/6: Software Package for Geochemical Modeling of Aqueous Systems: Package Overview and Installation Guide (Version 8.0). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCRL-MA-110662, PT I, Livermore, California (1992).
Xu, T., Apps, J. A., Pruess, K., et al. 2007. Numerical Modeling of Injection and Mineral Trapping of CO2 with H2S and SO2 in a Sandstone Formation. Chem Geol. 242 (3–4): 319–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2007.03.022.
Zhu, C. 2009. Geochemical Modeling of Reaction Paths and Geochemical Reaction Networks. Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 70 (1): 533–569. http://dx.doi.org/10.2138/rmg.2009.70.12.
Zirrahi, M., Azin, R., Hassanzadeh, H., et al. 2010. Prediction of Water Content of Sour and Acid Gases. Fluid Phase Equilibr. 299 (2): 171–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fluid.2010.10.012.
Not finding what you're looking for? Some of the OnePetro partner societies have developed subject- specific wikis that may help.
The SEG Wiki
The SEG Wiki is a useful collection of information for working geophysicists, educators, and students in the field of geophysics. The initial content has been derived from : Robert E. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.