Extension and Verification of a Simple Model for Vertical Sweep in Foam Surfactant-Alternating-Gas Displacements
- Roberto M. de Velde Harsenhorst (Delft University of Technology) | Ade S. Dharma (Delft University of Technology) | Alexey Andrianov (ENI Exploration & Production) | William R. Rossen (Delft University of Technology)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 373 - 383
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 2.5.2 Fracturing Materials (Fluids, Proppant), 5.3.2 Multiphase Flow, 5.4.2 Gas Injection Methods
- EOR, vertical sweep, surfactant-alternating-gas injection, foam displacement, gravity segregation
- 4 in the last 30 days
- 386 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
Foam is a promising method to improve sweep in gas-injection enhanced-oil-recovery (EOR) projects. For cases in which well-to-well distances are large, the question arises whether foam can prevent gravity segregation over these distances. For such cases, theoretical studies suggest that the best process is to inject one large slug of surfactant followed by one large slug of gas. Shan and Rossen (2004) present a simple model for such a process that provides an initial assessment whether foam can prevent segregation over large distances. They did not extend their calculations to the large distances between wells in some potential applications, and they treated only the case in which vertical permeability kv equals horizontal permeability kh. Here, we extend the model to cases of kv < kh. We derive an analytical solution for the limit as kv approaches zero, which could serve as a quick first estimate of feasibility for other cases. Surprisingly, the model predicts that gravity segregation is worse as kv decreases; the reason is that, with large kv, foam pushes downward in response to the pressure difference across the tilted foam front. We illustrate the use of the model with an example from a North Sea field, in which the issue was whether foam could prevent gravity segregation over a distance of several kilometers. The simple model said this was feasible, and more-detailed 2D cross-section simulation then confirmed that segregation was insignificant over an interwell distance of 6 km. One can fit the model parameters to foam parameters derived directly from laboratory data. We illustrate with a model fit by Rossen and Boeije (2013) to data of Persoff et al. (1991), a fit specifically designed for a hypothetical surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) application. The fit of simulations to the simple model is closer than in the North Sea example, and the prediction that sweep is better with kv = kh than for kv = 0 is confirmed. Moreover, the idealized model predicts the injectivity in this case very accurately.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||11|
Ashoori, E., Marchesin, D., and Rossen, W.R. 2011a. Dynamic Foam Behavior in the Entrance Region of a Porous Medium. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 377: 217–227.
Ashoori, E., Marchesin, D., and Rossen, W.R. 2011b. Roles of Transient and Local Equilibrium Foam Behavior in Porous Media: Traveling Wave. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 377: 228–242.
Ashoori, E., Marchesin, D., and Rossen, W.R. 2012. Stability Analysis of Uniform Equilibrium Foam States for EOR Processes. Transport in Porous Media 92: 573–595.
Ashoori, E., Marchesin, D., and Rossen, W.R. 2013. Multiple Foam States and Long-Distance Foam Propagation in Porous Media. SPE J. 17 (4): 1231–1245. SPE-154024-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154024-PA.
Ashoori, E., van der Heijden, T.L.M., and Rossen, W.R. 2010. Fractional-Flow Theory of Foam Displacements With Oil. SPE J. 15: 260–273. SPE-121579-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121579-PA.
Boeije, C.S. and Rossen, W.R. 2013a. Fitting Foam Simulation Model Parameters to Data. Presented at the 17th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, St. Petersburg, Russia, 16–18 April.
Boeije, C.S. and Rossen, W.R. 2013b. Gas Injection Rate Needed for SAG Foam Processes to Overcome Gravity Override. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 30 September–2 October. SPE-166232-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166232-MS.
Cheng, L., Reme, A.B., Shan, D. et al. 2000. 2000. Simulating Foam Processes at High and Low Foam Qualities. Presented at the SPE/DOE Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 3–5 April. SPE-59287-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/59287-MS.
Computer Modeling Group. 2006. STARS User’s Guide, Version 2006, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
de Velde Harsenhorst, R.M. 2012. Model for Gas Sweep With Foam. BSc thesis, Delft University of Technology, available at http://repository.tudelft.nl/ .
Dharma, A.S. 2013. Simulation Studies of Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery. MSc thesis, Delft University of Technology. Available at http://repository.tudelft.nl/.
Faisal, A., Bisdom, K., Zhumabek, B. et al. 2009. Injectivity and Gravity Segregation in WAG and SWAG Enhanced Oil Recovery. Presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–7 October. SPE-124197-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/124197-MS.
Grassia, P., Mas-Herandez, E., Shokri, N. et al. 2014. Analysis of a Model for Foam Improved Oil Recovery (also a talk presented in 2014); submitted to J. Fluid Mech.
Kloet, M.B., Renkema, W.J., and Rossen, W.R. 2009. Optimal Design Criteria for SAG Foam Processes in Heterogeneous Reservoirs. Presented at the SPE EUROPEC/EAGE Annual Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 8–11 June. SPE-121581-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121581-MS.
Lake, L.W. 1989. Enhanced Oil Recovery, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Leeftink, T.N., Latooij, C.A., and Rossen, W.R. 2013. Injectivity Errors in Simulation of Foam EOR. Presented at the 17th European Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, St. Petersburg, Russia, 16–18 April.
Ma, K., Lopez-Salinas, J.L., Puerto, M.C. et al. 2013. “Estimation of Parameters for the Simulation of Foam Flow Through Porous Media, Part 1: The Dry-Out Effect. Energy & Fuels 27: 2363–2375.
Mayberry, D.J., Afsharpoor, A., and Kam, S.I. 2008. The Use of Fractional Flow Theory for Foam Displacement in Presence of Oil. SPE Res Eval & Eng 11 (4): 707–718. SPE-100964-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/100964-PA.
Namdar Zanganeh, M., Kam, S.I., LaForce, T.C. et al. 2011. The Method of Characteristics Applied to Oil Displacement by Foam. SPE J. 16 (1): 8–23. SPE-121580-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/121580-PA.
Persoff, P., Radke, C.J., Pruess, K. et al. 1991. A Laboratory Investigation of Foam Flow in Sandstone at Elevated Pressure. SPE Res Eng 6 (3): 365–372. SPE-18781-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18791-PA.
Rossen, W.R. 1996. Foams in Enhanced Oil Recovery. Foams: Theory, Measurements and Applications, ed. R.K. Prud’homme and S. Khan, 413–464. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Rossen, W.R. and Boeije, C.S. 2013. Fitting Foam Simulation Model Parameters for SAG Foam Applications. Presented at the SPE Enhanced Oil Recovery Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2–4 July. SPE-165282-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/165282-PA.
Rossen, W.R., van Duijn, C.J., Nguyen, Q.P. et al. 2010. Injection Strategies to Overcome Gravity Segregation in Simultaneous Gas and Water Injection Into Homogeneous Reservoirs. SPE J. 15 (1): 76–90. SPE-99794-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/99794-PA.
Rossen, W.R., Venkatraman, A., Johns, R.T. et al. 2011. Fractional Flow Theory Applicable to Non-Newtonian Behavior in EOR Processes. Transport in Porous Media 89: 213–236.
Rossen, W.R., Zeilinger, S.C., Shi, J.-X. et al. 1999. Simplified Mechanistic Simulation of Foam Processes in Porous Media. SPE J. 4 (3): 279–287. SPE-57678-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/57678-PA.
Schramm, L.L. (ed.) 1994. Foams: Fundamentals and Applications in the Petroleum Industry, ACS Advances in Chemistry Series No. 242, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.
Shan, D. and Rossen, W.R. 2004. Optimal Injection Strategies for Foam IOR. SPE J. 9 (2): 132–150. SPE-88811-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/88811-PA.
van der Bol, L. 2007. Evaluation in Three Dimensions of Injection of Water Above Gas for Improved Sweep in Gas IOR. MSc thesis, Delft University of Technology; available at http://repository.tudelft.nl/ .
Zhou, Z.H. and Rossen, W.R. 1995. Applying Fractional-Flow Theory to Foam Processes at the “Limiting Capillary Pressure.” SPE Adv Technol 3: 154–162. SPE-24180-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/24180-PA.