Effect of Reservoir Heterogeneity on Primary Recovery and CO2 Huff 'n' Puff Recovery in Shale-Oil Reservoirs
- Cheng Chen (Halliburton) | Matthew T. Balhoff (University of Texas at Austin) | Kishore K. Mohanty (University of Texas at Austin)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Reservoir Evaluation & Engineering
- Publication Date
- August 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 404 - 413
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- 5.7.2 Recovery Factors, 5.8.4 Shale Oil, 5.5 Reservoir Simulation, 5.1.1 Exploration, Development, Structural Geology, 5.2.2 Fluid Modeling, Equations of State
- shale oil, numerical simulation, improved recovery, CO2 injection, huff-n-puff
- 12 in the last 30 days
- 1,324 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 10.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 30.00|
An equation-of-state (EOS) -based compositional reservoir simulator, UT-COMP, is used to simulate both primary recovery and carbon dioxide (CO2) huff 'n' puff recovery in a shale matrix typical of the Bakken formation, to investigate the effect of reservoir heterogeneity on hydrocarbon recovery. Nonaqueous components are carefully lumped into seven pseudocomponents. Permeability fields with various heterogeneity and correlation lengths are generated. UT-COMP is able to solve the compositional model, despite the permeability difference between the fracture and matrix being six orders of magnitude. The effects of both primary recovery and CO2 huff 'n' puff recovery depend significantly on reservoir heterogeneity. In primary recovery, the recovery factor can be fit by a two-parameter exponential formula; higher heterogeneity reduces the rate coefficient in the formula. Permeability fields with identical or similar heterogeneity have similar rate coefficients, even if the correlation lengths are different, which implies that the recovery depends primarily on heterogeneity and is insensitive to correlation length. Multiple-cycle CO2 huff 'n' puff processes are simulated in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs. Recovery rate in the production stage rises to a peak value much higher than that in the primary recovery, and then declines dramatically. The peak recovery rate decreases with increasing huff 'n' puff cycles, resulting from depleted reservoir pressure and hydrocarbons. The final recovery factor in the huff 'n' puff recovery is lower than that in the primary recovery, because the incremental recovery in the production stage is unable to compensate the loss in the injection and shut-in stages. Use of a longer shut-in time does not help increase the recovery rate in the production stage, because CO2 migration into the shale matrix is very limited because of the low matrix permeability. Reservoir heterogeneity leads to a faster decline of recovery rate in the production stage.
|File Size||1 MB||Number of Pages||10|
Alston, R.B., Kokolis, G.P., and James, C.F. 1985. CO2 Minimum Miscibility Pressure: A Correlation for Impure CO2 Streams and Live Oil Systems. SPE J. 25 (2): 268–274. SPE-11959-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/11959-PA.
Balhoff, M.T., Thompson, K.E., and Hjortso, M. 2007. Coupling Pore-Scale Networks to Continuum-Scale Models of Porous Media. Comput. Geosci. 33 (3): 393–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cageo.2006.05.012.
Balhoff, M.T., Thomas, S.G., and Wheeler, M.F. 2008. Mortar Coupling and Upscaling of Pore Scale Models. Computat. Geosci. 12 (1): 15–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10596-007-9058-6.
Chang, Y.B. 1990. Development and Application of an Equation of State Compositional Simulator. PhD dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas (XX 1990).
Chen, C. and Zhang, D. 2010. Pore-Scale Simulation of Density-Driven Convection in Fractured Porous Media During Geological CO2 Sequestration. Water Resour. Res. 46 (11). http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2010WR009453.
Chen, C., Zeng, L., and Shi, L. 2013. Continuum-Scale Convective Mixing in Geological CO2 Sequestration in Saline Aquifers with Various Anisotropy and Heterogeneity. Adv. Water Resour. 53 (March): 175–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.10.012.
Cherian, B.V., Stacey, E.S., Bressler, S., et al. 2012. Evaluating Horizontal Well Completion Effectiveness in a Field Development Program. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 6–8 February. SPE-152177-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152177-MS.
Cipolla, C., Fitzpatrick, T., Williams, M., et al. 2010. Seismic-to-Simulation for Unconventional Reservoir Development. Presented at SPE Reservoir Characterisation and Simulation Conference and Exhibition, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 9–11 October. SPE-146876-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146876-MS.
Clark, A.J. 2009. Determination of Recovery Factor in the Bakken Formation, Mountrail County, ND. Paper SPE 133719 presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, Louisiana, 4–7 October. SPE-133719-STU. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133719-STU.
Clarkson, C.R. and Pederson, P.K. 2011. Production Analysis of Western Canadian Unconventional Light Oil Plays. Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. SPE-149005-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149005-MS.
Daneshy, A. 2009. Factors Controlling the Vertical Growth of Hydraulic Fractures. Presented at the SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference, The Woodlands, Texas, 19–21 January. SPE-118789-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/118789-MS.
Dechongkit, P. and Prasad, M. 2011. Recovery Factor and Reserves Estimation in the Bakken Petroleum System (Analysis of the Antelope, Sanish and Parshall Fields). Presented at the Canadian Unconventional Resources Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 15–17 November. SPE-149471-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/149471-MS.
Gaurav, A., Dao, E.K., and Mohanty, K.K. 2012. Evaluation of Ultralight-Weight Proppants for Shale Fracturing. J. Pet. Sci. Eng. 92–93 (August): 82–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.petrol.2012.06.010.
Hoffman, B.T. 2012. Comparison of Various Gases for Enhanced Recovery from Shale Oil Reservoirs. Presented at SPE Improved Oil Recovery Symposium, Tulsa, Oklahoma, 14–18 April. SPE-154329-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/154329-MS.
Holm, L.W. 1986. Miscibility and Miscible Displacement. J Pet Technol. 38 (8): 817–818. SPE15794-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/15794-PA.
Honarpour, M.M., Nagarajan, N.R., Orangi, A., et al. 2012. Characterization of Critical Fluid PVT, Rock, and Rock-Fluid Properties – Impact on Reservoir Performance of Liquid Rich Shales. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 8–10 October. SPE-158042-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/158042-MS.
Jensen, J.L., Lake, L.W., Corbett, P., et al. 2000. Statistics for Petroleum Engineers and Geoscientists, Handbook of Petroleum Exploration and Production, Vol. 2, second edition. Danvers, Massachusetts: Elsevier.
Li, H., Qin, J., and Yang, D. 2012. An Improved CO2–Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation for Live and Dead Crude Oils. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 51 (8): 3516–3523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie202339g.
Pollastro, M.R., Cook, A.T., Roberts, N.R.L., et al. 2008. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil Resources in Devonian-Mississippian Bakken Formation, Willston Basin Province, Montana and North Dakota, 2008. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Fact Sheet No. 2008-3021, US Geological Survey (April 2008).
Rankin, R., Thibodeau, M., Vincent, M.C., et al. 2010. Improved Production and Profitability Achieved With Superior Completions in Horizontal Wells: A Bakken/Three Forks Case History. Presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Florence, Italy, 19–22 September. SPE-134595-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/134595-MS.
Shoaib, S. and Hoffman, B.T. 2009. CO2 flooding the Elm Coulee Field. Presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Petroleum Technology Conference, Denver, Colorado, 14–16 April. SPE-123176-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/123176-MS.
Simmons, C.T., Kuznetsov, A.V., and Nield, D.A. 2010. Effect of Strong Heterogeneity on the Onset of Convection in a Porous Medium: Importance of Spatial Dimensionality and Geologic Controls. Water Resour. Res. 46 (9). http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2009WR008606.
Stalkup, F. 1992. Miscible Displacement, Vol. 8. Richardson, Texas: Monograph Series.
Wang, X., Luo, P., Er, V., et al. 2010. Assessment of CO2 Flooding Potential for Bakken Formation, Saskatchewan. Presented at Canadian Unconventional Resources and International Petroleum Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19–21 October. SPE-137728-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/137728-MS.
Yang, D. and Song, C. 2013. Performance Evaluation of CO2 Huff-n-Puff Processes in Tight Oil Formations. Presented at SPE Unconventional Resources Conference Canada, Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 5–7 November. SPE-167217-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/167217-MS.