Time-Dependent Fracture-Interference Effects in Pad Wells
- Ripudaman Manchanda (The University of Texas at Austin) | Mukul Mani Sharma (The University of Texas at Austin) | Shawn Holzhauser (Shell)
- Document ID
- Society of Petroleum Engineers
- SPE Production & Operations
- Publication Date
- November 2014
- Document Type
- Journal Paper
- 274 - 287
- 2014.Society of Petroleum Engineers
- fracture, zipper, tracer, completion design, microseismic
- 3 in the last 30 days
- 893 since 2007
- Show more detail
- View rights & permissions
|SPE Member Price:||USD 12.00|
|SPE Non-Member Price:||USD 35.00|
Hydraulic fracturing in shale formations induces microseismic events in a region we refer to as the microseismic volume. Many of these microseismic events are signatures of failure in the formation that are believed to be a result of induced unpropped (IU) fractures beyond the primary propped fracture. Areally extensive microseismicity may be evidence that these IU fractures occur and extend spatially beyond the propped fracture during pumping in many unconventional reservoirs. We present evidence that these fractures close over time after pumping is stopped and that this closure of IU fractures can have a significant impact on stress interference between fractures. To illustrate these effects, microseismic and radioactive-tracer data are presented for four laterals drilled and fractured from a single pad. Two wells on this pad were fractured with the consecutive-fracturing sequence, and the other two wells were fractured with the zipper-fracturing sequence. Geomechanical simulations were performed to model the pad scenario and explain the microseismic and tracer observations, with emphasis on the two different fracturing sequences. Our simulations show that the opening of the IU fractures results in significant temporary changes to the stress field in the rock. One consequence of this is that later fracture stages tend to propagate into the open-fracture networks of IU fractures created earlier because of stress reorientation. This can lead to inefficient usage of fluid, proppant, and capital because the region that is being stimulated has already been stimulated by the previous stage. By analyzing the net pressure, radioactive-tracer data, and microseismic data from the four-well pad, we show that these IU fractures close over time because the fracture fluid leaks off. This reduces the stress shadow, and subsequent induced fractures are no longer subjected to the significantly altered stresses, allowing for more-efficient fracture-network coverage by subsequent fractures in a horizontal well. On the basis of the data presented and computer simulations, we propose the idea of maximizing the time between fracturing in the microseismic volume of a recently fractured region (within operational constraints). The time required for the IU fractures to close can be estimated from our models and varies on the basis of the reservoir and fluid properties from several hours to days. One example of how this is accomplished in practice is zipper fractures. However, our work suggests that there also may be other fracture-sequencing strategies for accomplishing this.
|File Size||2 MB||Number of Pages||14|
Cheng, X. 2012a. Impacts of the Number of Perforation Clusters and Cluster Spacing on Production Performance of Horizontal Shale-Gas Wells. SPE Res Eval & Eng 15 (1): 31-40. SPE-138843-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/138843-PA.
Cheng, X. 2012b. Mechanical Interaction of Multiple Fractures--Exploring Impacts of the Selection of the Spacing/Number of Perforation Clusters on Horizontal Shale-Gas Wells. SPE J. 17 (4): 992-1001. SPE-125769-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/125769-PA.
Cipolla, C.L., Jensen, L., Ginty, W. et al. 2000. Complex Hydraulic Fracture Behavior in Horizontal Wells, South Arne Field, Danish North Sea. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 1-4 October. SPE-62888-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/62888-MS.
Cipolla, C., Peterman, F., Creegan, T. et al. 2005a. Effect of Well Placement on Production and Frac Design in a Mature Tight Gas Field. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October. SPE-95337-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95337-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Shucart, J.K., and Lafitte, J.R. 2005b. Evolution of Frac-Pack Design, Modeling, and Execution in the Ceiba Field, Equatorial Guinea. Paper presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas. SPE-95514-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95514-MS.
Cipolla, C.L., Hansen, K.K. and Ginty, W.R. 2007. Fracture Treatment Design and Execution in Low Porosity Chalk Reservoirs. SPE Prod & Oper 22 (1): 94-106. SPE-86485-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/86485-PA.
Cipolla, C.L., Warpinski, N.R., Mayerhofer, M.J. et al. 2010. The Relationship Between Fracture Complexity, Reservoir Properties, and Fracture Treatment Design. SPE Prod and Oper 25 (4): 438–452. SPE-115769-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/115769-PA.
Cipolla, C.L., Weng, X., Mack, M. et al. 2011. Integrating Microseismic Mapping and Complex Fracture Modeling to Characterize Fracture Complexity. Paper presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26 January. SPE-140185-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140185-MS.
East Jr., L., Soliman, M.Y., and Augustine, J. 2011. Methods for Enhancing Far-Field Complexity in Fracturing Operations. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (3): 291-303. SPE-133380-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/133380-PA.
Fisher, M.K., Heinze, J.R., Harris, C.D. et al. 2004. Optimizing Horizontal Completion Techniques in the Barnett Shale Using Microseismic Fracture Mapping. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Houston, 26-29 September. SPE-90051-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/90051-MS.
Fisher, M.K., Wright, C.A., Davidson, B.M. et al. 2005. Integrating Fracture Mapping Technologies to Optimize Stimulations in the Barnett Shale. SPE Prod & Fac 20 (2): 85-93. SPE-77441-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/77441-PA.
Griffin, LG., Sullivan, R.B., Wolhart, S.L. et al. 2003. Hydraulic Fracture Mapping of the High-Temperature, High-Pressure Bossier Sands in East Texas. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 5-8 October. SPE-84489-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/84489-MS.
Jaeger, J.C. and Cook, N.G.W. 1979. Fundamentals of Rock Mechanics, third edition. London: Chapman and Hall.
Manchanda, R. and Sharma, M.M. 2012. Impact of Completion Design on Fracture Complexity in Horizontal Wells. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 8-10 October. SPE-159899-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/159899-MS.
Manchanda, R., Roussel, N.P. and Sharma, M.M. 2012. Factors Influencing Fracture Trajectories and Fracturing Pressure Data in a Horizontal Completion. Paper presented at 46th US Rock Mechanics / Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 24-27 June. ARMA-2012-633.
Manchanda, R. and Sharma, M.M. 2013. Time-Delayed Fracturing: A New Strategy in Multi-Stage, Multi-Well Pad Fracturing. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, New Orleans, 30 September-2 October. SPE-166489-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/166489-MS.
Mayerhofer, M.J. and Lolon, E.P. 2006. Integration of Microseismic-Fracture-Mapping Results With Numerical Fracture Network Production Modeling in the Barnett Shale. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, USA, 24-27 September. SPE-102103-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102103-MS.
Molenaar, M.M., Hill, D.J., Webster, P. et al. 2012. First Downhole Application of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) for Hydraulic Fracturing Monitoring and Diagnostics. SPE Drill & Compl 27 (1): 32-38. SPE-140561-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140561-MS.
Roussel, N.P. and Sharma, M.M. 2011a. Optimizing Fracture Spacing and Sequencing in Horizontal-Well Fracturing. SPE Prod & Oper 26 (2): 173–184. SPE-127986-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/127986-PA.
Roussel, N.P. and Sharma, M.M. 2011b. Strategies to Minimize Frac Spacing And Stimulate Natural Fractures in Horizontal Completions. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 30 October-2 November. SPE-146104-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/146104-MS.
Roussel, N.P., Manchanda, R. and Sharma, M.M. 2012. Implications of Fracturing Pressure Data Recorded during a Horizontal Completion on Stage Spacing Design. Paper presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 6-8 February. SPE-152631-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/152631-MS.
Vermylen, J.P. and Zoback, M.D. 2011. Hydraulic Fracturing, Microseismic Magnitudes, and Stress Evolution in the Barnett Shale, Texas, USA. Paper presented at SPE Hydraulic Fracturing Technology Conference and Exhibition, The Woodlands, Texas, USA, 24-26 January. SPE-140507-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/140507-MS.
Warpinski, N.R. 1990. Dual Leakoff Behavior in Hydraulic Fracturing of Tight, Lenticular Gas Sands. SPE Prod Eng 5 (3): 243–252. SPE-18259-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18259-PA.
Warpinski, N.R., Branagan, P.T., Sattler, A.R. et al. 1991. Case Study of a Stimulation Experiment in a Fluvial, Tight-Sandstone Gas Reservoir. SPE Prod Eng 5 (4): 403-410. SPE-18258-PA. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/18258-PA.
Warpinski, N.R., Wright, T.B., Uhl, J.E. et al. 1996. Microseismic monitoring of the B-Sand Hydraulic Fracture Experiment at the DOE/GRI Multi-Site Project. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Denver, 6-9 October. SPE-36450-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/36450-MS.
Weijers, L., Wright, C., Mayerhofer, M. et al. 2005. Developing Calibrated Fracture Growth Models for Various Formations and Regions Across the United States. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, Texas, 9-12 October. SPE-96080-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/96080-MS.
Wolhart, S.L., Odegard, C.E., Warpinski, N.R. et al. 2005. Microseismic Fracture Mapping Optimizes Development of Low-Permeability Sands of the Williams Fork Formation in the Piceance Basin. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, 9-12 October. SPE-95637-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/95637-MS.
Wolhart, S.L., Harting, T.A., Dahlem, J.E. et al. 2006. Hydraulic Fracture Diagnostics used to Optimize Development in the Jonah Field. Paper presented at SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition, San Antonio, Texas, 24-27 September. SPE-102528-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/102528-MS.
Zhai, Z. and Sharma, M.M. 2007. Estimating Fracture Reorientation because of Long Term Fluid Injection / Production. Paper presented at Production and Operations Symposium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 31 March-3 April. SPE-106387-MS. http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/106387-MS.
Zoback, M.D. 2007. Reservoir Geomechanics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.